首頁 »
12/31/2008

金恩博士(Martin Luther King)的演講 “I Have a Dream”,

美國20世紀最有名的100篇演講稿在1999年由威州大學﹐和德州農工大學敦請 137位學者投票選出,第一名是 金恩 博士的 “I Have a Dream”,這篇文章在美國第一任黑人總統奧巴瑪當選之後,今日重讀一次更有另一番感受。


(網路圖片)


 
一百年前,一位偉大的美國人簽署了解放黑奴宣言,今天我們就是在他的雕像前集會。這一莊嚴宣言猶如燈塔的光芒,給千百萬在那摧殘生命的不義之火中受煎熬的黑奴帶來了希望。它之到來猶如歡樂的黎明,結束了束縛黑人的漫漫長夜。
 
然而一百年後的今天,我們必須正視黑人還沒有得到自由這一悲慘的事實。一百年後的今天,在種族隔離的鐐銬和種族歧視的枷鎖下,黑人的生活備受壓榨。一百年後的今天,黑人仍生活在物質充裕的海洋中一個窮困的孤島上。一百年後的今天,黑人仍然萎縮在美國社會的角落裡,並且意識到自己是故土家園中的流亡者。今天我們在這裡集會,就是要把這種駭人聽聞的情況公諸於眾。
 
就某種意義而言,今天我們是為了要求兌現諾言而匯集到我們國家的首都來的。我們共和國的締造者草擬憲法和獨立宣言的氣壯山河的詞句時,曾向每一個美國人許下了諾言。他們承諾給予所有的人以生存、自由和追求幸福的不可剝奪的權利。
 
就有色公民而論,美國顯然沒有實踐她的諾言。美國沒有履行這項神聖的義務,只是給黑人開了一張空頭支票,支票上蓋著「資金不足」的戳子後便退了回來。但是我們不相信正義的銀行已經破產。我們不相信,在這個國家巨大的機會之庫裡已沒有足夠的儲備。因此今天我們要求將支票兌現--這張支票將給予我們寶貴的自由和正義的保障。
 
我們來到這個聖地也是為了提醒美國,現在是非常急迫的時刻。現在決非侈談冷靜下來或服用漸進主義的鎮靜劑的時候。現在是實現民主的諾言的時候。現在是從種族隔離的荒涼陰暗的深谷攀登種族平等的光明大道的時候。現在是向上帝所有的兒女開放機會之門的時候。現在是把我們的國家從種族不平等的流沙中拯救出來,置於兄弟情誼的磐石上的時候。
 
如果美國忽視時間的迫切性和低估黑人的決心,那麼,這對美國來說,將是致命傷。自由和平等的爽朗秋天如不到來,黑人義憤填膺的酷暑就不會過去。一九六三年並不意味著鬥爭的結束,而是開始。有人希望,黑人只要消消氣就會滿足;如果國家安之若素,毫無反應,這些人必會大失所望的。黑人得不到公民的權利,美國就不可能有安寧或平靜。正義的光明的一天不到來,叛亂的旋風就將繼續動搖這個國家的基礎。
 
但是對於等候在正義之宮門口的心急如焚的人們,有些話我是必須說的。在爭取合法地位的過程中,我們不要採取錯誤的做法。我們不要為了滿足對自由的渴望而抱著敵對和仇恨之杯痛飲。我們鬥爭時必須求遠舉止得體,紀律嚴明。我們不能容許我們的具有嶄新內容的抗議蛻變為暴力行動。我們要不斷地昇華到以精神力量對付物質力量的崇高境界中去。
 
現在黑人社會充滿著了不起的新的戰鬥精神,但是我們卻不能因此而不信任所有的白人。因為我們的許多白人兄弟已經認識到,他們的命運與我們的命運是緊密相連的,他們今天參加遊行集會就是明證。他們的自由與我們的自由是息息相關的。我們不能單獨行動。
 
當我們行動時,我們必須保證向前進。我們不能倒退。現在有人問熱心民權運動的人,「你們什麼時候才能滿足?」
 
只要黑人仍然遭受警察難以形容的野蠻迫害,我們就絕不會滿足。
 
只要我們在外奔波而疲乏的身軀不能在公路旁的汽車旅館和城裡的旅館找到住宿之所,我們就絕不會滿足。
 
只要黑人的基本活動範圍只是從少數民族聚居的小貧民區轉移到大貧民區,我們就絕不會滿足。
 
只要密西西比仍然有一個黑人不能參加選舉,只要紐約有一個黑人認為他投票無濟於事,我們就絕不會滿足。
 
不!我們現在並不滿足,我們將來也不滿足,除非正義和公正猶如江海之波濤,洶湧澎湃,滾滾而來。
 
我並非沒有注意到,參加今天集會的人中,有些受盡苦難和折磨;有些剛剛走出窄小的牢房;有些由於尋求自由,曾在居住地慘遭瘋狂迫害的打擊,並在警察暴行的旋風中搖搖欲墜。你們是人為痛苦的長期受難者。堅持下去吧,要堅決相信,忍受不應得的痛苦是一種贖罪。
 
讓我們回到密西西比去,回到阿拉巴馬去,回到南卡羅來納去,回到喬治亞去,回到路易斯安那去,回到我們北方城市中的貧民區和少數民族居住區去,要心中有數,這種狀況是能夠也必將改變的。我們不要陷入絕望而不克自拔。
 
朋友們,今天我對你們說,在此時此刻,我們雖然遭受種種困難和挫折,我仍然有一個夢想。這個夢想是深深紮根於美國的夢想中的。
 
我夢想有一天,這個國家會站立起來,真正實現其信條的真諦:「我們認為這些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等。」
 
我夢想有一天,在喬治亞的紅山上,昔日奴隸的兒子將能夠和昔日奴隸主的兒子坐在一起,共敘兄弟情誼。
 
我夢想有一天,甚至連密西西比州這個正義匿跡,壓迫成風,如同沙漠般的地方,也將變成自由和正義的綠洲。
 
我夢想有一天,我的四個孩子將在一個不是以他們的膚色,而是以他們的品格優劣來評價他們的國度裡生活。
 
我今天有一個夢想。
 
我夢想有一天,阿拉巴馬州能夠有所轉變,儘管該州州長現在仍然滿口異議,反對聯邦法令,但有朝一日,那裡的黑人男孩和女孩將能與白人男孩和女孩情同骨肉,攜手並進。
 
我今天有一個夢想。
 
我夢想有一天,幽谷上昇,高山下降,坎坷曲折之路成坦途,聖光披露,滿照人間。
 
這就是我們的希望。我懷著這種信念回到南方。有了這個信念,我們將能從絕望之嶙劈出一塊希望之石。有了這個信念,我們將能把這個國家刺耳爭吵的聲,改變成為一支洋溢手足之情的優美交響曲。
 
有了這個信念,我們將能一起工作,一起祈禱,一起鬥爭,一起坐牢,一起維護自由;因為我們知道,終有一天,我們是會自由的。
 
在自由到來的那一天,上帝的所有兒女們將以新的含義高唱這支歌:「我的祖國,美麗的自由之鄉,我為您歌唱。您是父輩逝去的地方,您是最初移民的驕傲,讓自由之聲響徹每個山崗。」
 
如果美國要成為一個偉大的國家,這個夢想必須實現。讓自由之聲從新罕布什爾州的巍峨峰巔響起來!讓自由之聲從紐約州的崇山峻嶺響起來?讓自由之聲從賓夕法尼亞州阿勒格尼山的頂峰響起來!
 
讓自由之聲從科羅拉多州冰雪覆蓋的洛基山響起來!讓自由之聲從加利福尼亞州蜿蜒的群峰響起來?不僅如此,還要讓自由之聲從喬治亞州的石嶙響起來?讓自由之聲從田納西州的瞭望山響起來!
 
讓自由之聲從密西西比的每一座丘陵響起來?讓自由之聲從每一片山坡響起來。
 
當我們讓自由之聲響起來,讓自由之聲從每一個大小村莊、每一個州和每一個城市響起來時,我們將能夠加速這一天的到來,那時,上帝的所有兒女,黑人和白人,猶太教徒和非猶太教徒,耶穌教徒和天主教徒,都將手攜手,合唱一首古老的黑人靈歌:「終於自由啦!終於自由啦!感謝全能的上帝,我們終於自由啦!」
 
資料來源:
 
 
 
I Have a Dream
Martin Luther King
Aug. 28, 1963
I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.
 
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.
 
This momentous decree came as a great beacon of hope to millions of slaves, who had been seared in the flames of whithering injustice.
 
It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.
 
But one hundred years later, the colored America ( 註:當時演講用的是Negro,現在的文件已不用此措辭) is still not free.
 
One hundred years later, the life of the colored American (Negro) is still sadly crippled by the manacle of segregation and the chains of discrimination.
 
One hundred years later, the colored American (Negro) lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity.
 
One hundred years later, the colored American (Negro) is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land.
 
So we have come here today to dramatize a shameful (an appalling) condition.
 
In a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our great republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir.
 
This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed to the inalienable rights of life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
 
It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned.
 
Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given its colored (Negro) people a bad check, a check that has come back marked "insufficient funds."
 
But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.
 
So we have come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and security of justice.
 
We have also come to his hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now.
 
This is not time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.
 
Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy.
 
Now it the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.
 
Now it the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.
 
Now is the time to make justice a reality to all of God's children.
 
It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of it's colored citizens.
 
This sweltering summer of the colored people's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.
 
Nineteen sixty-three is not an end but a beginning.
 
Those who hope that the colored Americans needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual.
 
There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the colored citizen is granted his citizenship rights.
 
The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.
 
We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities.
 
We cannot be satisfied as long as the colored person's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one.
 
We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "for white only."
 
We cannot be satisfied as long as a colored person in Mississippi cannot vote and a colored person in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.
 
No, no we are not satisfied and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.
 
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of your trials and tribulations.
 
Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by storms of persecutions and staggered by the winds of police brutality.
 
You have been the veterans of creative suffering.
 
Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.
 
Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our modern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.
 
Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.
 
I say to you, my friends, we have the difficulties of today and tomorrow.
 
I still have a dream.
 
It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
 
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed.
 
We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.
 
I have a dream that one day out in the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
 
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
 
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by their character.
 
I have a dream today.
 
I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; that one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
 
I have a dream today.
 
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be engulfed, every hill shall be exalted and every mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.
 
This is our hope.
 
This is the faith that I will go back to the South with.
 
With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope.
 
With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.
 
With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
 
This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning "My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.
 
Land where my father's died, land of the Pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!"
 
And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the hilltops of New Hampshire.
 
Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.
 
Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.
 
Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.
 
Let freedom ring from the curvacious slopes of California.
 
But not only that, let freedom, ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.
 
Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi and every mountainside.
 
When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old spiritual, "Free at last, free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last."
 
 
美國20世紀最有名的100篇演講稿在1999年由威州大學﹐和德州農工大學敦請 137位學者投票選出,第一名是 金恩 博士的 “I Have a Dream”
100篇里包括:
  1 Martin Luther King, Jr./ I Have A Dream
  2 John Fitzgerald Kennedy / Inaugural Address
  3 Franklin Delano Roosevelt / First Inaugural Address
  4 Franklin Delano Roosevelt / Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation
  5 Barbara Charline Jordan / 1976 DNC Keynote Address Long Excerpt
  6 Richard Milhous Nixon / Checkers
  7 Malcolm X / The Ballot or the Bullet
  8 Ronald Wilson Reagan Shuttle / Challenger Disaster Address
  9 John Fitzgerald Kennedy / Houston Ministerial Association Speech
  10 Lyndon Baines Johnson / We Shall Overcome
  11 Mario Mathew Cuomo / 1984 DNC Keynote Address
  12 Jesse Louis Jackson / 1984 DNC Address
  13 Barbara Charline Jordan / Statement on the Articles of Impeachment
  14 (General) Douglas MacArthur Farewell Address to Congress
  15 Martin Luther King, Jr. / "I've Been to the Mountaintop"
  16 Theodore Roosevelt/ "The Man with the Muck-rake"
  17 Robert Francis Kennedy / Remarks on the Assassination of M L King
  18 Dwight David Eisenhower Farewell Address
  19 Woodrow Thomas Wilson War Message
  20 (General) Douglas MacArthur "Duty, Honor, Country"
  21 Richard Milhous Nixon "The Great Silent Majority"
  22 John Fitzgerald Kennedy "Ich bin ein Berliner"
  23 Clarence Seward Darrow "Mercy for Leopold and Loeb"
  24 Russell H. Conwell "Acres of Diamonds"
  25 Ronald Wilson Reagan "A Time for Choosing"
  26 Huey Pierce Long "Every Man a King"
  27 Anna Howard Shaw "The Fundamental Principle of a Republic"
  28 Franklin Delano Roosevelt "The Arsenal of Democracy"
  29 Ronald Wilson Reagan "The Evil Empire"
  30 Ronald Wilson Reagan First Inaugural Address
  31 Franklin Delano Roosevelt First Fireside Chat
  32 Harry S. Truman "The Truman Doctrine"
  33 William Cuthbert Faulkner Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
  34 Eugene Victor Debs 1918 Statement to the Court
  35 Hillary Rodham Clinton "Women's Rights are Human Rights"
  36 Dwight David Eisenhower "Atoms for Peace"
  37 John Fitzgerald Kennedy American University Commencement Address
  38 Dorothy Ann Willis Richards 1988 DNC Keynote Address
  39 Richard Milhous Nixon Resignation Speech
  40 Woodrow Thomas Wilson "The Fourteen Points"
  41 Margaret Chase Smith "Declaration of Conscience"
  42 Franklin Delano Roosevelt "The Four Freedoms"
  43 Martin Luther King, Jr. "A Time to Break Silence"
  44 Mary Church Terrell "What it Means to be Colored in the...U.S."
  45 William Jennings Bryan "Against Imperialism"
  46 Margaret Higgins Sanger "The Morality of Birth Control"
  47 Barbara Pierce Bush 1990 Wellesley College Commencement Address
  48 John Fitzgerald Kennedy Civil Rights Address
  49 John Fitzgerald Kennedy Cuban Missile Crisis Address
  50 Spiro Theodore Agnew "Television News Coverage"
  51 Jesse Louis Jackson 1988 DNC Address
  52 Mary Fisher "A Whisper of AIDS"
  53 Lyndon Baines Johnson "The Great Society"
  54 George Catlett Marshall "The Marshall Plan"
  55 Edward Moore Kennedy "Truth and Tolerance in America"
  56 Adlai Ewing Stevenson Presidential Nomination Acceptance Address
  57 Anna Eleanor Roosevelt "The Struggle for Human Rights"
  58 Geraldine Anne Ferraro Vice-Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech
  59 Robert Marion La Follette "Free Speech in Wartime"
  60 Ronald Wilson Reagan 40th Anniversary of D-Day Address Long Excerpt
  61 Mario Mathew Cuomo "Religious Belief and Public Morality"
  62 Edward Moore Kennedy "Chappaquiddick" Short Excerpt
  63 John Llewellyn Lewis "The Rights of Labor"
  64 Barry Morris Goldwater Presidential Nomination Acceptance Address
  65 Stokely Carmichael "Black Power"
  66 Hubert Horatio Humphrey 1948 DNC Address
  67 Emma Goldman Address to the Jury
  68 Carrie Chapman Catt "The Crisis"
  69 Newton Norman Minow "Television and the Public Interest"
  70 Edward Moore Kennedy Eulogy for Robert Francis Kennedy
  71 Anita Faye Hill Statement to the Senate Judiciary Committee
  72 Woodrow Thomas Wilson League of Nations Final Address
  73 Henry Louis ("Lou") Gehrig Farewell to Baseball Address
  74 Richard Milhous Nixon Cambodian Incursion Address
  75 Carrie Chapman Catt Address to the U.S. Congress
  76 Edward Moore Kennedy 1980 DNC Address
  77 Lyndon Baines Johnson On Vietnam and Not Seeking Re-Election
  78 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Commonwealth Club Address
  79 Woodrow Thomas Wilson First Inaugural Address
  80 Mario Savio "An End to History"
  81 Elizabeth Glaser 1992 DNC Address
  82 Eugene Victor Debs "The Issue"
  83 Margaret Higgins Sanger "The Children's Era"
  84 Ursula Le Guin "A Left-Handed Commencement Address"
  85 Crystal Eastman "Now We Can Begin"
  86 Huey Pierce Long "Share Our Wealth"
  87 Gerald Rudolph Ford Address on Taking the Oath of Office
  88 Cesar Estrada Chavez / Speech on Ending His 25 Day Fast
  89 Elizabeth Gurley Flynn / Statement at the Smith Act Trial
  90 Jimmy Earl Carter "A Crisis of Confidence"
  91 Malcolm X "Message to the Grassroots"
  92 William Jefferson Clinton / Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Address
  93 Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm "For the Equal Rights Amendment"
  94 Ronald Wilson Reagan Brandenburg Gate Address
  95 Eliezer ("Elie") Wiesel "The Perils of Indifference"
  96 Gerald Rudolph Ford / National Address Pardoning Richard M. Nixon Long Excerpt
  97 Woodrow Thomas Wilson "For the League of Nations"
  98 Lyndon Baines Johnson "Let Us Continue"
  99 Joseph N. Welch "Have You No Sense of Decency"
  100 Anna Eleanor Roosevelt / Adopting the Declaration of Human Rights
 
 


蘋果電腦Steve Jobs的演講---Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish(中英對照)←上一篇 │首頁│ 下一篇→麥克阿瑟為子祈禱文(A Father's Prayer)
本文引用網址: