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[轉載] Bush Doctrine


Bush Doctrine

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President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Iran's nuclear ambitions and discusses North Korea's nuclear test.
President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Iran's nuclear ambitions and discusses North Korea's nuclear test.

"Bush Doctrine" is a phrase used to describe a policy outlined in a National Security Council text entitled the National Security Strategy of the United States published on September 20, 2002.[1]

Overview

In the events following September 11, 2001 attacks two distinct schools of thought arose in the Bush Administration regarding the critical policy question of how to handle allegedly dangerous countries such as Iraq, Iran, and North Korea ("Axis of Evil" states). Secretary of State Colin Powell and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, as well as US Department of State specialists, argued for what was essentially the continuation of existing US foreign policy. These policies, developed after the Cold War, sought to establish a multilateral consensus for action (which would likely take the form of increasingly harsh sanctions against the problem states, summarized as the policy of containment). The opposing view, argued by Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and a number of influential Department of Defense policy makers such as Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle, held that direct and unilateral action was both possible and justified and that America should embrace the opportunities for democracy and security offered by its position as sole remaining superpower. President Bush ultimately sided with the Department of Defense camp, and their recommendations form the basis for the Bush Doctrine.

Criticisms of the Bush Doctrine

Critics of the Bush Doctrine are suspicious of the increasing willingness of the US to use military force unilaterally. Some published criticisms include Storer H. Rowley’s June 2002[2] in the Chicago Tribune, Anup Shah’s [3] in Globalissues.org and Nat Parry’s April 2004[4] in ConsortiumNews.com. This doctrine is argued to be contrary to the Just War Theory and would constitute a war of aggression.[5] [6] Patrick J. Buchanan[7] writes that the 2003 invasion of Iraq has significant similarities to the 1996 neoconservative policy paper A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm.

Assertions and admissions of illegality in the case of Iraq

United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan made public statements to the effect that the war in Iraq was illegal under the U.N. charter,[8] and Defense Policy Board member Richard Perle so much as admitted that the preemptive war was unlawful, saying, "I think in this case international law stood in the way of doing the right thing," adding, "international law ... would have required us to leave Saddam Hussein alone."[9]

References



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