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2020葡萄牙(1)



2020.1.26 歐比多斯
今年與家人參加旅行團,在艷陽高照中來到了葡萄牙。
我們第一天來到歐比多斯(Obidos)這個中世紀小鎮,綿延的巨大城牆、蜿蜒的石子路小巷,感受一種樸實卻生氣勃勃的氣象。

















這裡出產的櫻桃酒,搭配小巧克力杯,甜甜微醺的酒味,非常好喝,可1歐元買1杯來試喝。





The name "Óbidos" is a Latinised (oppidum, citadel) derivation of the older Celtic "Eburobricio". The municipality had its growth from a Roman settlement near the foothills of an elevated escarpment. The region of Óbidos, extending from the Atlantic to the interior of Estremadura Province along the rivers and lakes has been inhabited since the late Paleolithic.A settlement was constructed by early Celt tribes, that was later a centre of trade for the Phoenicians. Archeological evidence from the base of the medieval tower (south of Facho) at Óbidos Castle indicates Roman construction linked to an outpost of the Roman civitas of Eburobrittium, a large urban area that has been under excavation. Archeological surveys determined the remains of a forum, baths and other Roman structures near the settlement.

After the fall of Rome, the region came under the influence of the Visigoths, although specific records are missing. The Roman town of Eburobrittium was abandoned in the 5th century for the more secure hilltop where today the principal settlement is located. Sometime after 713 the Moors established a fortification on this mountain, while a Christian community of Mozarabs lived in the Moncharro neighbourhood.

The area was taken from the Moors by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques, in 1148. Tradition states that one knight, Gonçalo Mendes da Maia, was responsible for the successful storming of the Moorish castle.The retaking of Óbidos was a final stage in the conquest of the Estremadura Province region, after the settlements of Santarém, Lisbon and Torres Vedras. Following the control of the region, the settlement received its first foral (charter) in 1195, during the reign of King Sancho I. In 1210, King Afonso II gave the title of this village to Queen Urraca. Since then, Óbidos has often been patronized by the Queens of Portugal, giving rise to its informal title as Vila das Rainhas (English: town of the Queens); several royal consorts enriched the village with donations from the Middle Ages until the 16th century.

The castle and walls of Óbidos were remodelled during the reign of King Dinis I. The limestone and marble structure was strengthened and elaborated, while the keep was created in the 14th century, by King Fernando. By the time of the first remodelling project, the settlement had also grown beyond the gates of the castle.

The Church of Santa Maria in Óbidos was the setting for the wedding of King Afonso V to his cousin, Princess Isabella of Coimbra, on 15 August 1441, when they were both still children aged 9 and 10, respectively.Administrative reforms conducted by King Manuel I at Óbidos in 1513, included the institution of a formal charter and major requalification of the urban area.

The 1755 earthquake caused damage to the village walls, a few churches, and many buildings, and resulted in the loss of architecture of Arab or Medieval inspiration.Similarly, the Peninsular Wars were fought in the vicinity of Óbidos, including the Battle of Roliça.More recently, the village was a centre of government and meeting place for those involved in the 1974 Carnation Revolution, linking it to the armed forces movement revolt

參考資料:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%93bidos,_Portugal

 

葡萄牙早在公元前1千年,已有凱爾特人伊比利亞半島定居下來。公元前140年前後,羅馬人征服了葡萄牙,並一直統治到公元5世紀日耳曼部落入侵。711年穆斯林入侵,僅葡萄牙北部還在天主教的手裡。1139年該地區成為葡萄牙王國,並隨著重新取回穆斯林所占據的部分而擴張起來。現代歐陸的葡萄牙疆界是在1249年國王阿方索三世手中完成的。

1383年葡萄牙國王斐迪南一世死後沒有男性繼承人,其女婿卡斯蒂利亞國王胡安一世宣布繼位,但是遭到了葡萄牙貴族與公眾的抵制,他們擁戴葡萄牙老國王佩德羅一世的私生子若昂一世(斐迪南一世的同父異母兄弟)繼位,並在阿勒祖巴洛特戰役中戰勝卡斯蒂利亞,從而保障了葡萄牙的獨立,同時也與卡斯蒂利亞處於緊張狀態,這迫使葡萄牙不得不向海上發展。若昂一世有五個孩子,其中第三個兒子就是著名的航海家恩里克王子

15、16世紀乃葡萄牙的全盛時代,在擁有大量殖民地,為海上強國。這一時期的歷史名人有恩里克王子巴爾托洛梅烏·迪亞士瓦斯科·達·伽馬斐迪南·麥哲倫等,葡萄牙也開創多項「第一」,包括最早探險至非洲最南端好望角的莫塞爾灣,開闢通往印度的新航線,麥哲倫的首次環航地球。但隨著其他歐洲國家繼取得海上霸權後,葡萄牙實力有所下降。在與摩洛哥以及鄂圖曼土耳其的三王會戰中,年輕的Sebastian I陣亡,1580年皇室姻親被併入西班牙,直到1640年才擺脫西班牙統治。1755年首都里斯本發生9級大地震,造成10萬人死亡,也令葡萄牙的國力嚴重下降,殖民帝國從此衰落。1807年遭到拿破崙法軍入侵,1808年被法軍所佔領,導致葡萄牙的布拉干薩王室Dinastia de Bragança)一度遷都到南美洲的殖民地巴西直到1812年戰爭結束才返回。在此期間為了爭取巴西人民的支持,宣布葡萄牙與巴西的平等地位,並改國號為葡萄牙-巴西-阿爾加維聯合王國。1822年巴西獨立,1825年葡萄牙承認巴西獨立。

1910年的10月5日革命推翻了君主制,國王曼努埃爾二世逃亡國外,葡萄牙正式成立第一共和國。1926年5月發生軍事政變卡爾莫納元帥上台,建立軍事獨裁政府。財政部長安東尼奧·薩拉查於1931年組織「國民聯盟」,1932年就任總理,成為獨裁者,對內推行法西斯專政,對外於1936年追隨法西斯,幫助西班牙佛朗哥叛軍進攻西班牙共和國政府。第二次世界大戰時名義上保持中立,實際上親近軸心國集團。二戰之後於1949年4月加入北大西洋公約組織,同年6月接受馬歇爾計劃。1951年與美國簽訂「軍事援助協定」,其後又簽訂各種協定,允許美國葡萄牙及其屬地建立軍事基地。該時期國家情報與安全警察被整合為國家安全警備總署,並被用於大規模鎮壓異見人士。1974年4月25日發生康乃馨革命,一批中下級軍官組成的「武裝部隊運動」推翻了持續42年的極右政權,開始民主化進程。

參考資料:

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%91%A1%E8%90%84%E7%89%99



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