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April 30, 2006

[轉載] 牧人與仙子的田園詩

“......And we will sit upon rocks,
    Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks,
    By shallow rivers to whose falls
    Melodious birds sing madrigals.

    讓我們倆閒坐大石之上
    靜觀放牧的人們餵食群羊
    悅耳的鳥鳴迴盪淺水的溪湄
    和著水聲如牧歌般悠揚......”

以下原文附解刊於《中央日報》民國 92 年 1 月 31 日的全民英語專刊(15)版上, 恰巧也是該專版的最後一期, 特此轉載以作保存:

 http://www.cdn.com.tw/live/2003/01/31/text/920131a1.htm


標題:牧人與仙子的田園詩
廖咸浩(臺灣大學外文系教授兼系主任)


 The Passionate Shepherd to His Love

  by Christopher Marlowe(1564-1593)

  熱情的牧人對他的愛人

  Come live with me and be my love,

  And we will all the pleasures prove

  That valleys, groves, hills, and fields,

  Woods, or steepy mountain yields.

  請與我同棲,為我最愛

  讓我倆印證一切的歡悅──

  不論生於深谷之中,高峰之上

  不論來自山涯水湄,林間效野

  And we will sit upon rocks,

  Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks,

  By shallow rivers to whose falls

  Melodious birds sing madrigals.

  讓我們倆閒坐大石之上

  靜觀放牧的人們餵食群羊

  悅耳的鳥鳴迴盪淺水的溪湄

  和著水聲如牧歌般悠揚

  And I will make thee beds of roses

  And a thousand fragrant poises,

  A cap of flowers, and a kirtle

  Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle;

  讓我為你舖好玫瑰的花床

  配上千枝花束傾吐馨香

  讓我獻上花飾的小帽一頂

  加上繡滿桃金孃葉的短裳

  A gown made of the finest wool

  Which from our pretty lambs we pull;

  Fair lined slippers for the cold,

  With buckles of the purest gold;

  一件極品羊毛編織的長裙

  來自我們可愛的小羊身上

  一雙便鞋襯裡厚實足以過冬

  鞋扣由純金打造絕不虛誑

  A belt of straw and ivy buds,

  With coral clasps and amber studs;

  And if these pleasures may thee move,

  Come live with me, and be my love.

  稻草與長春藤嫩芽編成的腰帶

  有珊瑚環扣與瑪瑙釘飾增彩

  如果這些喜樂能讓你心動

  請與我同棲,為我最愛

  The shepherds's swains shall dance and sing

  For thy delight each May morning:

  If these delights thy mind may move,

  Then live with me and be my love.

  俊俏的牧人會群起歌舞徘徊

  只為讓你在五月的晨光中開懷

  如果這些歡悅能讓你青睞

  請與我同棲,為我最愛


 The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd

  by Sir Waler Raleigh(1552-1618)

  仙子對牧人的回應

  If all the world and love were young,

  And truth in every shepherd's tongue,

  These pretty pleasures might me move

  To live with thee and be thy love.

  如果世界與愛情都青春永駐

  如果牧人說話誠懇實在

  這些悅人的歡樂或能讓我心動

  令我甘願與你同棲,為你最愛

  Time drives the flocks from field to fold

  When rivers rage and rocks grow cold,

  And Philomel becometh dumb;

  The rest complains of cares to come.

  時光會將羊群從田野驅入獸欄

  斯時河水湍怒,磐石毀爛

  費羅美拉被迫斷舌失聲

  眾人也怨懟來日的憂煩

  The flowers do fade, and wanton fields

  To wayward winter reckoning yields;

  A honey tongue, a heart of gall,

  Is fancy's spring, but sorrow's fall,

  春花易謝,而繁茂的田野

  也因任性的冬天而凋疲

  舌雖吐露甜蜜,但心卻獻上苦楚

  歡喜時的春天,迅成悲傷的秋季

  Thy gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of roses,

  Thy cap, thy kirtle, and thy posies

  Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten─

  In folly ripe, in reason rotten.

  你送的裙和鞋,你編的玫瑰床,

  你贈的眾多花束、小帽與短裳

  轉眼將折斷、將枯萎、被遺忘──

  愚昧舖天蓋地,理性毀敗淪喪

  Thy belt of straw and ivy buds,

  Thy coral claps and somber studs,

  All these in me no means can move

  To come to thee and be thy love.

  那稻草與長春藤嫩芽的腰帶

  珊瑚環扣與瑪瑙釘飾一一俱在

  這些都無法勾起一絲情懷

  令我甘願與你同棲,為你所愛

  But could youth last and love still breed,

  Had joys no date nor age no need,

  Then these delights my mind might move

  To live with thee and be thy love.

  只要青春能永駐,愛情能生長

  如果喜樂無限期,年紀不舉債

  這些歡樂便能觸動我心深處

  令我甘願與你同棲,為你所愛


  -解析-

  這兩首詩都屬於「田園詩」(pastoral)的文類傳統,可追溯到聖經中的大衛王及希臘詩人海希歐德。流行於希臘的田園詩大約分為三類:對話、獨白及輓歌。田園詩通常描寫身為牧羊人的敘事者,在一個風光明媚的田野中抒發情感,往往隱喻對城市生活的批判,並藉由情慾或友誼的思慕對失去的伊甸進行召喚。但流行於馬婁年代的田園詩雖對異性的戀慕多有著墨,但直接的情慾邀約,前此並不多見。馬婁的詩可謂開了此類情慾邀約的先河。此類詩中所表達多為「及時行樂」(carpe diem)(尤其是肉慾的當下滿足)的主題。此種嚮往的前提是人類因為過多的文明壓抑而產生諸般的問題。故在五月天裡,突破禁忌放縱情慾,便成了獲取救贖的重要途徑:情慾的終點便是未受文明所污染的伊甸。但及時行樂的主調背後,卻往往潛藏著深沉的無常感。故此類田園詩中亦有「韶光易逝」(tempus fugit )的母題:在時間的濁流中,純真必遭世故污染,一如春花之易謝,而五月田野中的故事也終將隨之煙消雲散。

  第一首詩以「及時行樂」的母題貫穿。詩中的牧人以各種甜言蜜語勸說水邊的仙子(nymph)與之同棲同遊、雙宿雙飛。第二首則可謂第一首的諧擬(parody)。本詩將敘述者改為仙子,並以「韶光易逝」的主題將第一首中以「及時行樂」之主題所營造之美好願景予以揭穿。仙子指出人世早非伊甸,時光之流逝既無法抑遏,則海誓山盟亦必難持久。全詩既帶諷刺又流露出無法抒解的悲傷,與第一首詩的天真(也可能是故作不知的欺瞞)形成強烈對比。故這兩首詩一正一恰好組成了某類田園詩的完整面貌。



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