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2010/11/30

電化學切削技術--精微成型 Electrochemical microstructuring

 
Electrochemical microstructuring - a new tool for three dimensional micromachining

 

Miniaturization of mechanical parts and complete machines has been identified as a future technology. For example, very small gearwheels might find application in medical tools as well as in sensors. However, the fabrication of small parts of dimension in micrometer is still a challenge. Scientists at the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, now developed a simple electrochemical procedure to fabricate such three-dimensional microstructures.

With a small tool electrode they electrochemically etch a workpiece with micrometer precision. The innovation in this method is the application of the electrical voltage between the electrodes as ultrashort pulses with only nanosecond duration. (One billion nanoseconds equals one second.) The short pulse duration effectively confines the electrochemical reaction, e.g., the etching of the material, to a very small region in close proximity to the tool electrode.


The scientists led by Rolf Schuster and Gerhard Ertl have already demonstrated the machining of copper and of silicon, the most important semiconductor material, on the desired microscopic scale. However other materials, such as alloys and semiconductors may be easily structured with high precision. Improving the machining accuracy from the readily achieved submicrometer range towards that attainable by lithographic methods is one of the future goals. Additionally, this method has the advantage over lithographic methods in that it can be used for three dimensional fabrication.

Electrochemical microstructuring is based on a fundamental property of electrochemical reactions. On electrode surfaces, immersed into an electrolyte, the electrochemical double layer forms from ions of the solution and opposite charges in the electrode surface. In order to start the electrochemical reactions (e.g., the dissolution of electrode material) this double layer has to be polarized by application of an electrical voltage. The time constant for this charging is low, but increases with increasing distances between the electrodes.

This distance dependence is at the heart of the new method: A small tool electrode is brought in micrometer proximity to the workpiece. Upon application of short enough voltage pulses, the electrochemical double layers are charged sufficiently only where the electrodes are closer than about one micrometer. The electrochemical reactions are then strongly confined to those polarized regions.

Hence, the tool electrode can be precisely imprinted into the workpiece. Moving a cylindrical tool electrode like a miniature milling cutter through the workpiece enables the fabrication of three dimensional structures, as has been demonstrated by the use of a 10 micrometer thin wire as tool.

This method can be extended by forming the tool into the desired endform. The process can be further accelerated by using a large number of identical tools in parallel, which is important for technological applications.

 

Figure 1: Size comparison between a fabricated microstructure and the eye of a fly.

 

Figure 2: Three dimensional microstructure etched into a copper sheet. The high machining precision was achieved by application of ultrashort voltage pulses between the small tool, a 10 micrometer thick wire, and the copper sheet in electrochemical environment.

 

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OTEC公司專門研發製造金屬和非金屬的精密表面處理技術及設備,如:切削刀具的鎢鋼和高速鋼之表面處理,並廣泛為世界級大廠所採用如:Guhring oHGIskar等等。利豐行引進最先進的精密研磨和拋光技術,並希望提供台灣廠商提昇產業競爭力及生產效益和使用壽命。OTEC精密表面處理技術被認定為世界的領導者之一。研磨拋光、邊緣導角、功能性、裝飾性,這些精密表面處理技術除了令人讚嘆外,OTEC的技術整合還考量到生產者的需求,讓生產者在質量上和效益上及成本上有一個完美的平衡。機械操作除了更人性化還能額外整合生產者目前的製造設備。OTEC的產品兼具美觀及實耐用,不佔空間卻能在最小的單位中創造出最大的質量,當你採購了OTEC的設備後,除了擁有出眾的表面處理技術讓您的競爭力提升外,當客戶拜訪您公司時也不免對您令眼相看而發出讚嘆,OTEC是您生意的好伙伴。

另外有 EMAG ECM GmbH (ECM/PECM) 精微電化學加工技術在未來各種細微加工應用中佔有極大的優勢。該技術之優點係在於其加工能力與材料硬度無關,且能加工出微細及形狀複雜之表面結構,經由該製程加工後之產品表面具有粗糙度佳、無殘留應力及無裂縫產生等優良特性,常應用於航太、光電半導體、醫療器材、綠色能源、模具等產業上,本次研討會中特別邀請國內外知名學者及專家,介紹於精微電化學領域內之各種加工技術,可應用於燃料電池雙極板、生物晶片、微流體動壓軸承、微噴嘴、次世次流體分配閥元件、模具等產品加工上,機會難得,精彩可期。PECM為精密電化學切削的工程公司,其領先的技術,已在精密電化學切削領域達到量產化的水準。供顧客PECM精密電化學切削生產技術和客制化的製程設備。 Electrochemical machining / pulse electrochemical machining / precise electrochemical machining. Electro chemical machining (ECM) is a method of removing metal by an electrochemical process. It is used for working extremely hard materials or materials ... 

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