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2005/12/02

【英語教室】16. 現在完成式

好久沒更新這個單元了,因為最近補習班的課程裡都沒有太難的文法,只是句型練習。終於,進行到了英文文法裡的重頭戲--現在完成式。

現在完成式的基本句型為:主詞 + have/has + 過去分詞(p.p.)。
have/has 在此句型裡視為助動詞,因此用法與 do/does 相同。

【現在完成式的使用時機】
1. 表 "經驗"
 如:I have been to Paris.

2. 已經開始並持續到現在的動作或狀態
 如:I have worked hard since I graduated from school.

3. 已經做完但與現在有關的動作或狀態
 如:I have just cleaned the floor. (So you do not need to do it again.)

◎現在完成進行式:表示 "持續不間斷",句型為 主詞 + have/has + been + Ving
 如:He has been talking for 2 hours.


【現在完成式常用字彙】
1. ever:用於疑問句
 Have you ever played volleyball?

2. never:用於肯定句,但具有否定意義
 She's (=She has) never played volleyball.

3. already:用於肯定與疑問,放於 have/has 與 p.p. 之間,亦放句尾
 He has already finished his homework.
 Has he already finished his homework?

4. yet:疑問與否定,放句尾
 He hasn't finished yet.
 Has he finished yet?

5. how long:問 "多久"
 How long have you known Mary?

6. for + 時間:動作持續的時間長度
 I have known Mary for five years.

7. since + 時間:動作開始的時間,可以句子或時間
 I have known Mary since five years ago. (接時間)
 I have known Mary since she moved here. (接句子)

【補充】過去式:過去特定的時間發生的事,如:yesterday / last week / in 1983
 I visited Africa last summer.
 I washed my clothes this morning. <-- 說這話時,已不是早上了
 I have washed my clothes this morning. <-- 現在仍是上午

關於過去式的用法,詳情請閱《過去簡單式


【練習一】填空
1. I _________ (see) her before.
2. My sister _________ (read) three Japanese magazines so far. (so far = 到目前為止)
3. My boss _________ (be) to Kaohsiung twice this month.
4. The boy _________ (take) a shower already and is ready to sleep.
5. Hurry up! The show _________ (start).
6. Her grandparents _________ (have) this car since 1990.


【解答一】
1. have seen     2. has read
3. has been     4. has taken
5. has started    6. have had


【練習二】以現在完成式或過去式填入適當的詞性 
1. Michael Jackson _________ (be) the most successful singer of the 1980s.
2. Michelle Kwan _________ (win) several figure ice skating contests so far.
3. What _________ you _________ (do) for me lately?
4. I _________ (not/go) to Paris last year because I _________ (not/have) enough money.
5. _________ Kathy _________ (return) your CDs yet?
6. He _________ (catch) a cold last week.


【解答二】
1. was
2. has won
3. have / done
4. did not go / did not have
5. Has / returned
6. caught

關鍵字: 經驗

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