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2009/03/23

【英語教室】24. 倒裝句

一般的英文直述句句型,為:主詞 + 動詞。而本單元要講解的,是把動詞放在主詞前的直述句用法,有強調句首那個字的意思。

個人覺得,倒裝句真的不好用,連英語系人士都不見得每人都會。之前留學時,就有一老美跟我爭論一個倒裝句的句型,他當然不認為我是他非,後來用 Word 的文法檢查,才相信我的用法是對的。所以,除了要應付考試的人,不然,這類句型,看得懂就好了,不必刻意了解或使用。

‧頻率副詞在句首的用法:so, seldom, such, never, rarely, only, little, hardly 等
 原來句型:主詞 + 副詞 + 動詞 / 主詞+ Be 動詞 + 副詞
 倒裝句型:副詞 + 助動詞 + 主詞 + 動詞 / 副詞 + Be 動詞 + 主詞
 
 【注意】動詞為一般動詞時,要加助動詞!!

 原句:He is seldom late to school.
 倒裝:Seldom is he late to school.

 原句:The situation was so strange that I could not turn on my computer.
 倒裝:So strange was the situation that I could not turn on my computer.

 原句:He has rarely worked late.
 倒裝:Rarely has he worked late.

 原句:He never gets up early. / He has never got up early.
 倒裝:Never does he get up early.  / Never has he got up early.
 【注意】do/does/did 等出現時,後面的動詞要用原形

 原句:I can never jump that high.
 倒裝:Never can I jump that high.


‧副詞片語在句首的用法:
 直接把動詞與主詞對調,不需要額外加助動詞;但如需要加助動詞,規則比照頻率副詞的用法。但主詞若為代名詞時,因為太簡短,所以不必與動詞對調。

 原句:A bear came out of the woods.
 倒裝:Out of the woods came a bear.

 原句:He came here.
 倒裝:Here he came. (因主詞為代名詞,放句尾太簡短,因此不必對調)

 原句:He cannot go anywhere.
 倒裝:Nowhere can he go.
 【註】不要問我為什麼原句是用 cannot+anywhere 的句型,而倒裝用 Nowhere。這是語感問題,常聽常說英文就可大概抓出他們的使用習慣了。


‧Only 在句首的用法:
 正確而言,Only 放句首時,應該是要用倒裝句的句型,但現在已有趨勢用直述句也可以。但如果是面臨考試,奉勸各位還是用倒裝句的句型為妥。

 例句:Only can he complete the task.
 新趨勢,但考試時不建議使用:Only he can complete the task.


‧so/neither/nor 等 在句尾的用法:
 通常用逗號隔開兩句即可。但也有人用連接詞 and 隔開兩句。

 例一:I can walk fast and so can you.
 例二:He gets up early, so does his brother.
 例三:If he can finish the home work, so can you. 
 例四:He never goes to school on time, neither does his sister.

 例句:"I cannot choose but adhere to the word of God, which has possession of my conscience; nor can I possibly, nor will I even make any recantation, since it is neither safe nor honest to act contrary to conscience! Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise, so help me God! Amen."  — Martin Luther


※這一單元,也許疏漏了其他的倒裝句型,要請各位閱讀時幫忙提醒了。


【練習一】請指出主詞
1. Just across the street was the department store.
2. In the city live many senior people.
3. On the table were the gifts for the Wang family.
4. In the dark appeared the deer.

【練習二】填出正確的用法
1. I am thirsty. _______. (so/he)
2. I've got a lot of money, _______. (so/you/will)
3. He feels tired and _______. (so/his sister)
4. I am going to stop, _______. (so/he)
5. The students heard the news yesterday, _______. (so/the teacher)
6. You were on time and _______. (so/I/was)


【解答一】
1. department store
2. people
3. the Wang family
4. deer

【解答二】
1. So is he
2. so will you
3. so does his sister
4. so is he
5. so did the teacher
6. so was I



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