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2008/11/24

【英語教室】20. 關係代名詞進階運用

關係代名詞是真的不好懂,但搞懂了之後,就海闊天空。前篇【關係代名詞 - Who, Whose, Which, That】僅是初步概念,這一篇要進入較進階的用法。有需要的人,請先了解前篇之後,再來看這一篇。

鄉親啊,如果這些教學對你有一滴滴的幫助,或疑惑,都請留個言吧!畢竟這些資料都是 Miss Rich 搜羅來再加以整理的,也是頗費工夫的。

先將前篇略為提到的兩個觀念複習一下。

I. 關係代名詞的省略
1) 當受詞時,關代可以直接省略
 例一:請將下兩句以關係合成為一句
   I am reading a book. The book is practical.
 解答:The book (which/that) I am reading is practical.

 【解說】which/that 當做 I am reading 的受詞。括號內的文字可省略。

 既然當受詞時可以省略的話,那麼,上句可以改寫成:The book I am reading is practical.

 例二:I believe (that) tomorrow will be a sunny day.
 省略改成:I believe tomorrow will be a sunny day.

 【解說】that tomorrow will be a sunny day 整句都是 believe 的受詞,因此可以省略。

 2-1) 關代後面接的是 be + 過去分詞(被動式) 的句型時,可以省略關代及 be 動詞;
 2-2) 若關代後面接補語,如 be+副詞,也可省略關代及 be 動詞;
 2-3) 若關代後面一般動詞,省略關代後,將動詞改為 V-ing

 例一:The book (which/that is) borrowed from the library is worth reading.
 省略改成:The book borrowed from the library is worth reading.

 例二:The criminal (who/that is) in jail is very regretful(後悔的).
 省略改成:The criminal in jail is very regretful.

 例三:My uncle who/that lives in Kaohsiung has three kids.
 省略改成:My uncle living in Kaihsiung has three kids.

 例四:My uncle, who lives in Kaohsiung, has three kids. (此句的 who 不可用 that 替換,詳情請見前篇的 IV)
 省略改成:My uncle, living in Kaohsiung, has three kids. 

【提醒】關係代名詞仍謹守「一個主詞、一個動詞」(請見【英語教室】第一單元)。因此,不確定關代是否可以省略時,可以檢查一下句子,看是否有兩個以上的動詞出現。如果違反了這個最基本的規則,就不要省略。

又,被動詞句型:be+pp.,動詞在 be 動詞,而過去分詞並不是動詞,因此上述的 2-1 成立。


II. 關係代名詞的絕不可省略
 相較於前項,這項討論的是,關代引導子句時,絕對不可以省略。

 例一:It is said that tomorriw will be a sunny day.
 【解說】that tomorriw will be a sunny day 整句當做 said 的補語,也就是 it 所代表的事件,在這樣的情況下,關代不可省略。

 【訪客 Ying 補充說明】
  上述這個章節 的解釋 似乎有誤
  這邊這個that 並不是當作 關係代名辭的子句  
  而是名詞子句  只當做名詞(主詞或受詞或補語)用

  這點從這些句子裡面沒有先行詞就可以判斷出

  不過版主的結論  that不能省略是對的

 例二:My idea is that all of us go to the party.
 【解說】that all of us go to the party 整句都在說明 idea,用法與例一相同,關代不可省略。

 例三:That he failed in the exam made his parents very disappointed.
 【解說】that 引導的是 he failed in the exam,這整件事讓他的父母失望,不可省略。


II. 關係代名詞的移位
 我不知該怎麼稱呼這樣的句型才正確,因此就用移位來形容了。

 一般而言,關係代名詞緊接在所代替的名詞之後;但有一種情形,如果插入關代的子句後,原先的句子意思會改變,或關係子句後面的字詞很短,就有必要將關代移個位子。

 例一:I am going to buy him a gift whose birthday is this Friday.
 【解說】whose birthday is this Friday 很明顯是在形容 him,但如果把句子直接放在 him 後面,將 a gift 放句尾,就與 buy him 離得太遠(買什麼呢?讀者要到最後才看到),整句會變得很奇怪。

 例二:I don't like the accident last week that a boy got hit
 【解說】that a boy got hit 在這句裡,是形容 accident,但若把 last week 放句尾,則離 accident 太遠,因此,將 that 放在 week 後面,但形容的仍是前面的名詞 accident.


【練習】選擇適當的關代填入 (who, which, that),若關代可以省略,請以括號框示。

1. The new apartment _______ they are moving to is quite expensive.
2. I want to buy the car _______ is displayed in Mr. Lin's store.
3. A person _______ is ambitious usually does well at work.
4. _______ do you think will win the game?
5. The friend _______ I am waiting for is usually late.
6. I like the car _______ is parked by the store.
7. _______ do you think the car belongs to?
8. This is the best movie _______ I've ever seen.
9. Do you know the girl _______ is crossing the street?
10. The girl _______ works in that factory is my best friend.


【解答】
1. (which/that)
2. which/that, 原句可為:I want to buy the car (which/that is) displayed in Mr. Lin's store.
3. who/that   (不可省略) 
4. Who   (不可用 that)
5. (who/that)
6. which/that (不可省略)
7. Who (不可省略)
8. (that) (可省略。並且,關代修飾的詞有最高級形容時,只能用 that,不能用 which,請見【英語教室】19. 關係代名詞 的注意。)
9. who/that, 原句可為:Do you know the girl (who/that is) crossing the street?
10. who/that, 原句可為:The girl working in that factory is my best friend.


相關單元:《關係代名詞 - Who, Whose, Which, That》、《關係副詞 - When, Where, Why, How, What


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