首頁 »
2008/11/21

【英語教室】19. 關係代名詞 - Who, Whose, Which, That

英語教室】開張以來,只剩二個重要的文法觀念遲遲未講解:關係代名詞 (Relative Pronouns)、假設法。當然還有很多細瑣的觀念,但如果確實把握了英語教室】的所有單元,已可以讀懂絕大多數的句型了。(當然,背單字就要靠各位自行努力了)

關係代名詞(簡稱關代),也就是代名詞的一種,代替了先前出現的人事物,同時,具有連接詞的功能,將數個短的句子,連接成一個長句。Who 用來代替人、which 則代替事或物,而 that 可與 who / which 替換。但是,that 之前不可以有逗號或介系詞。至於 whose,則為所有格。以下分別說明。

I. Who 的用法:代替先前出現過的 "人"
例句:

The boy is running.
The boy is my brother.

兩個句子,用關代連結,可成為:The boy who is running is my brother.

上句中的 "who",代替了前面出現的 "the boy",而 who is running 在修飾 the boy。又因 who 可用 that 替換,因此也可寫成:

The boy that is running is my brother.

又例如:
The man sold you a camera yesterday.
The man is my boss.

可改成:The man who sold you a camera yesterday is my boss.

who(that) 代替了 the man,who sold you a camera yesterday 整句在修飾 the man。

【小練習】翻譯:你今天早上看到(see, meet)的人是我母親。

【解答】The person who you saw (met) this morning is my mother.

※注意一:當關代為受詞時,可以省略。

因此,上面的解答,可以變成:The person you saw this morning is my mother.
(who 為 saw 的受詞,你今早看到的人)

※注意二:who 當受詞時,可以用 whom 替代。

因此,上句也可改寫成:The person whom you saw this morning is my mother.


II. Which 的用法:代替先前出現過的 "事物"
例句:
The pen is red.
I am writing with the pen.

變成:The pen which I am writing with is red.

用 that 替換,則成為:The pen that I am writing with is red.

然而,這裡的關代是 writing with 的受詞(我正在用來寫字的筆),可以省略,因此可以變成:The pen I am writing with is red.

【小練習】翻譯:他住的房子是大房子。

【解答】The house which he lives in is big.

【問題】上句的 which,可不可以省略?

【解答】可以。因為是 lives in 的受詞,因此全句可改成:The house he lives in is big.

【變形】上面的解答,還可以把介系詞 in 移到關代之前,變成:The house in which he lives is big. 但是,將介系詞移到關代之前時,關代就不可以省略,也不能換成 that


※注意!如果關代前面是用最高級形容時,只能用 that,不能用 who 或 which。
 例:This is the best book that I have ever read.
   This is the most difficult question that students can hardly understand.


III. Whose 的用法:代替所有格
例句:

The girl's hair is curly(捲髮).
The girl is my sister.

合併為:The girl whose hair is curly is my sister.

【小練習】翻譯:我喜歡的狗,耳朵是長的。

【解答】I like the dogs whose ears are long.


IV. 限定用法
先來比較這兩個句子:

1. I have a brother who lives in Taipei.
2. I have a brother, who lives in Taipei.

句一為限定用法,表示,我有很多兄弟,但只有一個住台北。
句二表示,我只有一個兄弟,且這個兄弟住台北,也就是,補充說法的意思。

根據前述,that 之前不可以有逗號或介系詞,因此,句一的 who 可以用 that 替換,但句二則不行。



【練習】填入 who, whose 或 which,並視情況可否用 that 替換。
1. The computer _______ he bought last week was very cheap.
2. The waiter _______ served our table was very friendly.
3. The man _______ hair is brown saved the child.
4. The chair on _______  I was sitting was broken.
5. _______  are you speaking to?
6. This is the book _______ I told about you last Sunday.
7. Is that the lady _______ car is new and expensive?
8. He wears a hat _______ is too big for him.
9. The boy _______ came to the store this morning did not say a word.
10. She is going to the club _______ members are bankers.


【解答】
1. which / that / 或省略
2. who / that
3. whose
4. which
5. Who
6. which / that / 或省略
7. whose
8. which / that
9. who / that
10. whose


相關單元:《關係代名詞進階運用》、《關係副詞 - When, Where, Why, How, What

關鍵字: 觀念

【英語教室】18. 祈使句←上一篇 │首頁│ 下一篇→【英語教室】20. 關係代名詞進階運用
本文引用網址: