表面處理的對象非常廣泛,從傳統工業到現在的高科技工業,從以前的金屬表面到現在的塑膠,非金屬的表面.它使材料更耐腐蝕 ,更耐磨耗,更耐熱,它使材料之壽 延長,此外改善材料表面之特性,光澤美觀等提高產品之附加價值,所有這些改變材料表面之物理,機械及化學性質之加工技術統稱為表面處理 (surface treatment) 或稱為表面加工(surface finishing).
金屬表面處理(metal surface treatment)
金屬經初步加工成型後需修飾金屬表面,美化金屬表面 ,更進一步改變金屬表面的機械性質及物理化學性質等之各種操作過程,稱之為金屬表面處理.或稱之金屬 表面加工(metal surface finishing).
CMP同性超精拋光工藝解決了這些問題，通過減少摩擦，延長零部件的使用壽命，並提高燃油效率。 CMP 過程製造一個光滑，微紋理表面可以提高原油保持性能和冶金安全。我們已成功開發出一系列新的高容量，高速質量後整理工藝，專為滿足高生產的汽車行業的需求。這些的CMP過程是強大的，易於實現自動化，並嚴格控制以保持組件的幾何完整性。
- 非公路 off-road 重負荷運輸工具
- 各式 gear box 等等...
由於小模數齒輪主要運用於精密儀器儀表,不但基本技術要求高,而且不同的運動形式、環境、結構需要不同的、更高的技術要求,一般包括以下幾點。(1)準確可靠的運動精度:每轉旋轉角誤差小。(2)平穩無衝擊的工作精度:瞬時傳動比變化小。(3)接觸精度高:嚙合齒接觸均勻,接觸面大,接觸應力小,少磨損,使用壽命長。(4)齒側間隙精度高。(5)噪聲小。 小模數齒輪切削的工藝方法有:銑齒、滾齒、插齒、剃齒、拉齒、衝齒和光整加工的磨齒、珩齒、研齒、拋齒、去毛刺。 小模數齒輪無切削的加工工藝方法有冷軋、熱軋、壓鑄和注塑等。 — at 利豐行事業有限公司 Li Fung Business Co., Ltd.
Powder metallurgy is a forming and fabrication technique consisting of three major processing stages. First, the primary material is physically powdered, divided into many small individual particles. Next, the powder is injected into a mold or passed through a die to produce a weakly cohesive structure (via cold welding) very near the dimensions of the object ultimately to be manufactured. Pressures of 10-50 tons per square inch are commonly used. Also, to attain the same compression ratio across more complex pieces, it is often necessary to use lower punches as well as an upper punch. Finally, the end part is formed by applying pressure, high temperature, long setting times (during which self-welding occurs), or any combination thereof.
Two main techniques used to form and consolidate the powder are sintering and metal injection molding. Recent developments have made it possible to userapid manufacturing techniques which use the metal powder for the products. Because with this technique the powder is melted and not sintered better mechanical strength can be accomplished.
History and capabilities
The history of powder metallurgy and the art of metals and ceramics sintering are intimately related. Sintering involves the production of a hard solid metal or ceramic piece from a starting powder. There is evidence that iron powders were fused into hard objects as early as 1200 B.C. In these early manufacturing operations, iron was extracted by hand from metal sponge following reduction and was then reintroduced as a powder for final melting or sintering.
A much wider range of products can be obtained from powder processes than from direct alloying of fused materials. In melting operations the "phase rule" applies to all pure and combined elements and strictly dictates the distribution of liquid and solid phases which can exist for specific compositions. In addition, whole body melting of starting materials is required for alloying, thus imposing unwelcome chemical, thermal, and containment constraints on manufacturing. Unfortunately, the handling of aluminium/iron powders poses major problems. Other substances that are especially reactive with atmospheric oxygen, such as tin, are sinterable in special atmospheres or with temporary coatings.
In powder metallurgy or ceramics it is possible to fabricate components which otherwise would decompose or disintegrate. All considerations of solid-liquid phase changes can be ignored, so powder processes are more flexible than casting, extrusion, or forging techniques. Controllable characteristics of products prepared using various powder technologies include mechanical, magnetic, and other unconventional properties of such materials as porous solids, aggregates, and intermetallic compounds. Competitive characteristics of manufacturing processing (e.g., tool wear, complexity, or vendor options) also may be closely regulated.
Powder Metallurgy products are today used in a wide range of industries, from automotive and aerospace applications to power tools and household appliances. Each year the international PM awards highlight the developing capabilities of the technology.
Isostatic Powder Compacting
Isostatic Powder Compacting is a mass-conserving shaping process. Fine metal particles are placed into a flexible mold and then high gas or fluid pressure is applied to the mold. The resulting article is then sintered in a furnace. This increases the strength of the part by bonding the metal particles. This manufacturing process produces very little scrap metal and can be used to make many different shapes. The tolerances that this process can achieve are very precise, ranging from +/- 0.008 inches for axial dimensions and +/- 0.020 inches for radial dimensions. This is the most efficient type of powder compacting.(The following subcategories are also from this reference.) This operation is generally applicable on small production quantities, as it is more costly to run due to its slow operating speed and the need for expendable tooling.
- Compacts powdered metal within a flexible mold by uniformly applied, high fluid/gas pressure
- Parts are sintered to increase strength through metallurgical bonding
- Produces very little scrap material
- Can use alloy combinations and filler
- Can produce complex workpiece geometries
There are many types of equipment used in Powder Compacting. There is the mold, which is flexible, a pressure mold that the mold is in, and the machine delivering the pressure. There are also controlling devices to control the amount of pressure and how long the pressure is held for. The machines need to apply anywhere from 15,000 psi to 40,000 psi for metals.
內 容摘要:一、鈦基硬質合金的性能 鈦基硬質合金是以TiC或Ti（C, N ）為主要成份（占60%～80%以上），Ni-Mo或Ni-Co-Mo作粘結相的硬質合金。鈦基硬質合金的英文名為“Cermet”。這類合金過去有人稱 之為“金屬陶瓷”。但國際標準化組織ISO153-1991將其劃歸在硬質合金大類內（材料代號HT），而不是陶瓷材料大類內。
鈦 基硬質合金是以TiC或Ti（C, N ）為主要成份（占60%～80%以上），Ni-Mo或Ni-Co-Mo作粘結相的硬質合金。鈦基硬質合金的英文名為“Cermet”。它是由陶瓷 （ceramics）的詞頭cer與金屬（metal）的詞頭met結合起來構成的。這類合金過去有人稱之為“金屬陶瓷”。但國際標準化組織 ISO153-1991將其劃歸在硬質合金大類內（材料代號HT），而不是陶瓷材料大類內。為了區別於國內習稱的“金屬陶瓷”——在Al2O3-TiC中 加入少量粘結金屬（Ni和Mo等）的陶瓷，所以本文使用國際標準化組織用語“鈦基硬質合金”。
Opposing blast nozzles put turbulence to work.
Edited by Jim Destefani
A patented process for rapidly cleaning and deburring complex internal passages in castings and other components is being marketed by Hammond Roto-Finish (Kalamazoo, MI).
|Opposing nozzles can create a 360° blast pattern, and flow through intersecting passageways to provide rapid cleaning and deburring of castings and other parts with complex internal geometry. .|
Developed by Steve Carpenter, president of Hammond distributor Grand Northern Products (Grand Rapids, MI), the Recipro-Blast process uses opposing blast streams to create turbulence inside the component being processed. The turbulence created by the opposing streams aggressively removes internal burrs, burned-on sand and leftover mold or core materials from difficult-to-reach passages and highly cored and deep components. Nozzle and part movement are servo-controlled.
Carpenter explains that the system grew out of his foundry experience. “When I worked in foundries, first as a chief engineer and then as a plant manager, a common problem was cleaning interior part passages, especially small IDs with long or irregular sections,” he says. “In an effort to create turbulence that could be controlled, we tried introducing blast streams from opposing ends with some amazing results.”
Carpenter continued to develop the process, then patented it and sold the marketing rights to Hammond. He says it can replace labor-intensive hand cleaning, molten salt cleaning, rotary brushes, extensive external wheel blasting and other processes such as thermal deburring.
In simple terms, the process uses two or more opposing blast nozzles to impart reflective, random energy to the blast media at a chosen area inside the part. According to Carpenter, Recipro-Blast is much more effective and much faster than conventional blasting for internal deburring and cleaning.
It's no secret that the difficult business environment of the past year or so has impacted everyone in our industry. In what's been called a perfect economic storm, some shops and suppliers have faced tough decisions—including going out of business.
Yet requirements for engineering, anti-corrosion, decorative and other coatings to support applications in all types of industries remain. In the relatively small domain of the finishing industry, shop owners and operators, and many suppliers, have primarily focused on trimming non-essential costs and improving operating efficiencies while scrambling to keep the doors open.
As the global economy cycles back toward some form of "normalization," plating facilities and suppliers need to position themselves to initiate and accelerate their own economic recovery. There are many methods for stimulating recovery, but focusing on activities that grow the "top line" sales for your company can provide an immediate positive impact. Also important is balancing the "bottom line" by optimizing existing technologies.
For our company, one element of recovery involves an emphasis on research and development of new technologies that will enable finishers to grow their top line by developing new markets. Our focus has been largely on niche applications and the development of technologies to stimulate efforts to break into those niches.