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October 14, 2016

乾飼料對貓腸胃道的影響


Answers: What Dry Food Does to Your Cat's Gut
乾飼料對貓腸胃道的影響

Last Updated on Saturday, August 13, 2016 08:51 PM
Published on Saturday, August 13, 2016 07:48 PM
Written by Guillermo Díaz, MV
 
最近更新:2016年8月13日
原始刊出日:2016年8月13日
作者:獸醫基勒摩.迪亞茲(Guillermo Diaz, MV
 
原文出處連結:
http://feline-nutrition.org/answers/answers-what-dry-food-does-to-your-cats-gut
 
I want to switch my cat over to a raw meat diet, but, in the meantime I'm still feeding her dry food. I notice she throws it up pretty often, almost always soon after eating it. What is it about dry food that makes cats throw it up? The barf looks almost the same as when it went in!
 
問:
我想幫我的貓轉吃生肉,不過目前我還是餵她吃乾飼料。我發現她蠻常嘔吐的,而且大多是在吃完後沒多久就吐了。為什麼吃乾飼料會吐出來?而且吐出來的飼料狀態也沒有什麼改變。
 
"Why did my cat throw up?" is one of the most common questions vets get asked. Vomit is the first defense mechanism by which cats protect themselves from the absorption of substances that could harm them. For the purposes of this article, I'm going to consider "vomit" everything a cat expels from her mouth, regardless if it's digested or not. Cats have a relatively short gastrointestinal or GI tract, powerful abdominal muscles and a very delicate and precise sympathetic nervous system that can detect potential harmful substances and allow the cat to expel them.
 
答:
「為什麼我的貓會吐」是獸醫最常被問到的問題之一。當貓吃到對身體有害的物質時,嘔吐是保護自身的第一道機制。在本文當中,我會用「嘔吐」形容不同的嘔吐狀況,不管吐出來的食物是否已消化。貓的腸胃道蠻短的,加上有力的腹部肌肉,以及細膩且精準的交感神經系統,可以偵測到有害物質的存在,並且促使貓把有害物質吐出來。
 
Cats have evolved as strict carnivores. They are highly specialized to ingest, digest and absorb animal protein and fat efficiently. Cats have developed scissor-like teeth designed exclusively to rip, tear and chew meat and bones. When fed dry kibble, their teeth are not efficient at coping with all those tiny pellets by chewing. As a consequence, most of the kibble is swallowed intact.
 
貓是絕對肉食動物,身體是為了有效率的攝取、消化和吸收動物蛋白質以及脂肪而設計。貓有剪刀狀的牙齒,可以用來撕咬肉和啃骨頭。貓的牙齒無法處理小小顆粒狀的食物,所以貓吃乾飼料時大多是原封不動的吞下去。
 
Because of the extreme low water content of dry commercial diets, usually between 5 and 10 percent on average, once those pellets are swallowed they tend to absorb great amounts of water from saliva and gastric juices, so they can be digested. But, in the process and as a collateral effect, these pellets get swollen and many times exceed the capacity of the stomach, stretching its wall and the nerve fibers within. This sends SOS signals to the medulla oblongata in the brain, the center for the vomit response, generating the process we all have witnessed at least once: our cat begins to meow in a weird manner and to retch, which is an acute vomiting episode, throwing up the food she ate a few minutes ago. That is the origin of those weird tubular structures made of wet kibble we find on the floor. The message the cat's GI tract is sending is: "I cannot digest this food." This is one of the effects, a mechanical effect, of dry kibble on your cat's gut.
 
乾飼料中的水分極低,平均大約是百分之五到十,所以顆粒狀的乾飼料被貓吞下去之後,會吸收口水和胃液,以便進行消化。但是吸了水分之後的乾飼料體積會膨脹數倍,超過胃部空間的容納能力,胃壁以及其中的神經纖維被撐大。如此的狀況對腦中的延髓(延腦)發出求救訊號,嘔吐反射中樞做出回應,導致貓做出我們都曾經見過的反應:貓開始發出奇怪的聲音,乾嘔,然後吐出幾分鐘前吃下去的食物,也就是我們在地板上發現的條狀物,濕濕的乾飼料。貓的腸胃道傳送出的訊息是:「這是我無法消化的食物」。這是乾飼料對貓的腸胃道所造成的影響之一,是一種身體機制的反應。
 
Vomit in cats is not a normal event, and it is a red flag that something is going wrong. Many pathologies include vomiting as a symptom; that is why you need to take your cat to the vet for a checkup and rule out disease as a possible cause. Here are some of the problems that can make cats throw up:
 
貓嘔吐不是正常狀況,是身體不對勁的警訊。嘔吐是許多疾病的症狀;所以你必須帶貓就醫檢查,以排除生病的可能。以下是貓嘔吐的其中一些原因:
 
  • Food intolerance
  • Food allergy
  • Gastritis, acute and chronic
  • Liver diseases
  • Pancreatitis
  • Uremia
  • Trauma
  • Drugs and chemicals
  • Toxins
  • Renal insufficiency
 
  • 食物不耐
  • 食物過敏
  • 急性或慢性胃炎
  • 肝臟疾病
  • 胰臟炎
  • 尿毒症
  • 受傷
  • 藥物和化學物品
  • 中毒
  • 腎功能不全
 
Another effect of dry kibble is on the immune system. Many cats do develop allergies to dry foods; this is the reason for intermittent vomiting over a long period of time. If the cat is fine, looks healthy, maintains a normal weight, doesn't look ill and has normal energy levels, but just throws up occasionally, you should consider a food allergy as the possible cause. In both cases, mechanical and immune, there's damage done to the integrity of the gut wall.
 
乾飼料也會影響免疫系統。許多貓對乾飼料過敏,造成貓長期出現斷續的嘔吐狀況。如果貓看起來是健康的,體重正常,沒有病態而且活力正常,只是偶爾會嘔吐,應該把食物過敏列入考量。不管是身體機制反應的嘔吐,還是免疫系統對過敏物質反應的嘔吐,都會對貓的胃壁健全造成破壞。
 
Let's have a quick glance at the microscopic view of the gut. From the outer layer to the inner layer:  
 
我們來看一下胃的結構,從最外層到最內層。
 
  • Serosa: This is the "cover" sheet of the gut and lies all along the GI tract.
  • Muscular layer: Smooth muscle fibers running along and across the intestines and stomach. This layer allows the GI tract to move and contract itself, called peristalsis, facilitating digestion.
  • Submucosa: The location where the digestive glands are located as well as the blood supply.
  • Mucosa: The inner layer where the molecular digestion occurs. It has finger-like structures or "villi" covered by the enterocytes.
 
  • 漿膜層:胃壁的表層,延伸到腸胃道
  • 肌層:平滑的肌肉纖維,分布在胃和腸。肌層讓腸胃道可以蠕動收縮,促進消化。
  • 粘膜下層:消化腺和血液供應位於這一層
  • 粘膜:分子消化進行的內層。結構類似手指或絨毛,被上皮細胞所覆蓋。
 
Due to mechanical and/or immune damage to the mucosa, a disruption, or rupture, occurs in this delicate barrier, allowing the passage of undigested nutrients, i.e. proteins, many types of additives and preservatives from the food and bacteria from the gut and from the food into the bloodstream. All of these are now allergens. These whole, undigested molecules are detected by the immune system generating an immune response and sensitizing the individual to that, or those, specific antigens present in the food.¹
 
身體機制和免疫反應對粘膜造成破壞,細膩的關卡因此而瓦解,讓還沒有消化的養分,例如蛋白質,以及許多來自食物的添加物和防腐劑,和來自胃和食物的細菌,進入血管,並且全部變成過敏原。免疫系統偵測到這些完整的、尚未被消化的分子,對食物中的過敏原做出過敏反應。(註1)
 
The intestinal mucosa is a very efficient barrier that limits the absorption of macromolecules. After the antigen is exposed or presented for the first time to the mucosa generally, a local immune response develops. This inflammatory response reduces the amount of antigenic material absorbed and if the noxious stimulus persists the response will be general, as in all over the body. When the inflammation of the GI tract is established and the patient has remained untreated, the absorption rate increases because of the vasodilation of the mucosa, thus allowing the intake of greater amounts of allergens, causing a vicious cycle. When this happens, the first clinical sign generally observed is vomiting, sometimes with blood present. The signs that follow can be diarrhea/loose stools, anorexia, itchiness, alopecia, uneasiness, excessive licking, hair loss and secondary skin infections.² ³
 
大腸粘膜是一道很有效率的關卡,限制大分子被吸收。在粘膜第一次接觸到過敏原後,出現局部的免疫反應。這個發炎反應會減少過敏原被吸收,但是如果有害的刺激物抗拒這個反應,發炎的範圍會擴大,甚至遍及全身。當腸胃道發炎而且沒有加以治療時,吸收率會提高,因為粘膜的血管擴張,更多的過敏原因此被吃下去,展開一個惡性循環。當這種循環存在體內時,第一個臨床反應往往是嘔吐,有時候嘔吐物中有血。接著而來的症狀可能是腹瀉/軟便、厭食、皮膚搔癢、掉毛、不安、過度舔毛,以及續發型的皮膚感染。(註2&3)
 
If the short intestine is involved, the diarrhea is characterized by a large volume of loose, watery stools, poor body condition and weight loss. In many cases of cats with chronic inflammation of the GI tract, diarrhea is not present until a stressful event occurs, such as pregnancy, parturition or a change of environment.⁴
 
如果小腸也被牽連,腹瀉的典型狀況是糞便量多、身體狀況不佳以及體重減輕。許多腸胃道慢性發炎的貓,會在有壓力的事件發生時才出現腹瀉狀況,例如懷孕、分娩或是環境改變。(註4)
 
The best and most effective way to stop this vicious cycle is to stop feeding the cat the species-inappropriate food and provide the patient with the raw natural choices available. Do not forget, the GI tract has a great capacity to renew its lining cells at an extraordinary rate, even outpacing all other tissues. Let's give Mother Nature a chance to heal.
 
終止這個惡性循環最有效率的作法,是停止餵貓不適合的食物,給貓吃天然的生肉餐。別忘了,腸胃道有極大的修復力,可以迅速修復內壁細胞,速度比身體其他組織的修復力還要快。就讓造物主來修復這個惡性循環吧!

 
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Note: Feline Nutrition provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. Feline Nutrition disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.
 
免責聲明:Feline Nutrition (貓科營養) 基於公共服務的精神提供貓科健康和營養訊息。診斷或治療的行為應該是由你的獸醫進行。本網站所提供的任何獸醫建議和資訊,Feline Nutrition 不負任何責任。
 
If you have a question, please send it to answers@felinenutritionfoundation.orgWhile we cannot answer questions individually, if your question would be helpful to others, we may post it in Answers.
 
Dr. Guillermo Díaz studied veterinary medicine at the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Perú. He currently practices in Lima and also provides veterinary services to a large number of local rescue organizations.
 
本文作者獸醫基勒摩.迪亞茲(Dr. Guillermo Diza) 就讀位於秘魯利馬的 Universidad Mayor de San Marcos 獸醫系。他目前在利馬執業,同時提供許多當地的動物救援組織獸醫服務。
 
  1. TR Tams, "Chronic Feline Inflammatory Bowel Disorders," Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 8, no. 6, 1986,  371-376.
  2. JR August, Consultations in Feline Internal Medicine, 5th ed., Elsevier, Nov 2006.
  3. E Baker, "Food Allergy in a Cat," Feline Practice 5, 1975, 18-26.
  4. DN Carlotti, "Food Allergy in Dogs and Cats, A Review Report of 43 Cases," Veterinary Dermatology 1, June 1990, 55-62.


 


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