首頁 »
August 5, 2016

貓的食物與癌症風險


Answers: Diet and Your Cat's Cancer Risk
貓的食物與癌症風險

Last Updated on Sunday, July 31, 2016 04:22 PM
Published on Saturday, July 23, 2016 07:47 PM
Written by Elisa Katz, DVM
 
最近更新:2016年7月31日
原始刊出日:2016年7月23日
作者:獸醫 Elisz Katz, DVM
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/answers/answers-diet-and-your-cats-cancer-risk
 

Does what I feed my cat have anything to do with her chances of getting cancer? My friend's cat has cancer and now I want to do everything I can to minimize my cat's chance of getting it.
 
問:
我餵貓的食物和得到癌症的機率有沒有關係?我朋友的貓得到癌症,我想要努力的把我的貓得到癌症的風險降到最低。
 
What you feed to your cat may play a role in his or her risk for cancer. Scientists and medical doctors have been aware of the link between chronic inflammation and cancer for over 100 years.¹ There is even at least one laboratory performing blood tests to help determine cancer risk in pets based on detecting high levels of substances known to be produced during inflammation.
 
答:
你餵貓的食物可能會影響貓得到癌症的風險。一百年前,科學家和醫生就已經注意到慢性發炎和癌症之間是有關聯的(註1)。目前至少有一個實驗室可以幫寵物做血檢,偵測發炎時被製造出來的物質的含量,以判斷寵物得到癌症的風險。
 
So, how does this all relate to your cat's diet? An inappropriate diet for an obligate carnivore, such as the cat, can lead to a pro-inflammatory state.² Over time, this may significantly contribute to your cat's cancer risk. What do we mean by an inappropriate diet? For a cat, nature has built them to be hunters and eat a diet based around meat. In the wild, cats will subsist on small rodents and perhaps birds; rodents are a lot easier to catch because they can't fly away. As shown in Table 1, this type of diet would consist of certain amounts of protein, fat, bone, water, and carbohydrate as well as any minerals the cat's body needs.³ Any diet that does not meet these vital requirements would be considered inappropriate for a cat. This includes any and all dry foods, even those that are grain-free.
 
但是這跟貓的食物有什麼關係?餵貓吃不適合肉食動物的食物,可能會讓貓進入一個"促進發炎"的狀態(註2)。隨著時間的過去,貓得到癌症的風險也跟著提高。什麼是不適合肉食動物的食物?貓是天生的獵人,以吃肉維生。野外的貓吃小型囓齒類動物或小鳥;囓齒類比較容易捕捉因為他們不會飛。以下表格列出三種囓齒類動物體內含有的蛋白質、脂肪、骨頭、水分、碳水化合物,以及貓的身體需要的礦物質(註3)。當一種食物的營養成分,沒有符合這些重要的需求時,就是不適合的貓食物,因此所有乾糧都是不適合的食物,甚至無縠乾糧也是。
 

 
家貓獵物的營養成分表
  成年小鼠 成年大鼠 野兔
乾物比 32.7 33.9 28.1
蛋白質 55.8 61.8 65.3
脂肪 23.5 32.6 15.3
2.98 2.62 0.64
1.72 1.48 0.53
0.16 0.08 0.15
水分 67.3 66.1 71.9
乾物比表示用100減去水分後所剩下的數字
 
譯註:
英文的老鼠有兩個不同的字,一個是rat,指體型比較大的老鼠,例如田鼠;另一個是mouse,指體型比較小的老鼠,例如家鼠。所以我翻譯成大鼠和小鼠。(不是大薯小薯,那要淋上cheese比較好吃XD)
 
Dry diets have to be made using a process called extrusion. This process requires a certain amount of carbohydrate in order to bind the nugget so that it will stick together. For cats, any dry diet results in more carbohydrate than is ideal for this species. Dry diets also do not provide an appropriate amount of moisture to your cat. Cats have a low thirst drive as they evolved mostly in the deserts of the world and were able to get most of their fluid intake from their prey, which typically contain about 70% water.
 
製造乾糧時,必須進行一個擠壓成型的過程。這個過程需要一定程度的碳水化合物,給糰狀食材黏性,才不會散開。所有乾糧的碳水化合物含量,都貓來說都是太高的。再者乾糧也無法提供適量的水分。貓天生不愛喝水,因為他們是在沙漠進化的動物,所獲得的水分大多是來自獵物本身,其含水量大約是百分之七十。
 
There are other factors regarding your cat's diet that can influence cancer risk, such as the presence of chemicals or chemical preservatives. Butylated hydroxyanisole, or BHA, and butylated hydroxytoluene, or BHT, are both suspected carcinogens which are used as preservatives in many packaged foods for both humans and animals.⁴
 
關於貓的食物,有其他的因素會影響得到癌症的風險,例如食物中的化學物質或是化學防腐劑。丁羥甲醚(丁基羥基甲氧苯),也稱BHA二丁基羥基甲苯,也稱BHT,都是致癌物,許多人類和動物的食品包裝中都含有這兩者。
 
The presence of GMOs or genetically modified plant ingredients may increase your cat's cancer risk. Many of these plants are modified to withstand higher amounts of herbicides such as glyphosate, or Roundup®, or even produce herbicides themselves.⁵ ⁶ So, while it may not be the GMO plants themselves that are dangerous, they could harbor more pesticide and herbicide residues than conventionally grown crops.⁷ Fortunately for cats, they do not require significant amounts of any plant material in their diet. But, it is also possible that the livestock that go into the cat's diet may have been fed GMOs. Livestock fed GMO plants could possibly harbor toxin residues, especially in the liver, as this is the main filtering organ for these substances.⁸
 
食材中如果有基改作物,也有可能會提高貓得到癌症的風險。許多植物的基因被改造,以承受例如草甘膦之類的除草劑,如年年春(商品名),或是基改作物本身會製造除草劑(註5和6)。所以,或許危險不是來自基改植物本身,但和傳統方法栽種的植物比較起來,基改作物比較可能含有較多的殺蟲劑和除草劑殘餘物(註7)。還好貓並不需要吃很多植物,但是貓食材中的家畜,有可能是以基改植物為食,因此體內可能會有殘餘的有毒物質,尤其是肝臟,因為是過濾有毒物質的主要器官(註8)。
 
Lastly, other chemicals such as bisphenol A, also known as BPA, are sometimes used in the manufacture of cat food to prevent it from sticking to the can and lid. At least in humans, these chemicals have been linked to various cancers, including breast cancer.⁹
 
最近,其他的化學物質,例如雙酚A,簡稱BPA,有時候也會被加入貓食中,預防貓食黏在罐頭內層和蓋子上。在人類身上,這個化學物質和很多種癌症有關,例如乳癌(註9)。
 
It is important that to reduce your cat's cancer risk you feed him or her the least processed diet possible. Processing may often concentrate carcinogens and can sometimes create carcinogens. Heating to the very high temperatures necessary to make most dry foods results in the production of acrylamides, which have been linked to certain types of cancer in humans and heterocyclic amines, a known carcinogen.¹⁰ ¹¹
 
要減少得到癌症的機會,貓食的加工處理程序就要越簡單越好,這是很重要的。加工可能會增加或是製造致癌物。乾糧製造過程所需要的高溫,可能會產生丙烯醯胺,和人類幾種癌症有關;高溫加熱也會產生異環胺,是一種致癌物。
 
Following the above recommendations is especially important if your cat already has cancer or perhaps has been diagnosed with IBD, a possible precursor to cancer. Exposure to these chemicals can weaken their immune system and may encourage cancer growth. Remember, more than 70% of the immune system is within the GI tract.
 
如果你的貓已經得到癌症,或是炎症性腸病確診(可能是癌症的先兆),依循以上建議的重點來選擇貓食尤其重要。曝露於這些致癌物之下不但會削弱免疫系統,還可能刺激腫瘤增長。別忘了,身體內的免疫系統有百分之七十是存在於腸胃道中。
 
Note: Feline Nutrition provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. Feline Nutrition disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.
 
免責聲明: Feline Nutrition (貓科營養) 基於公共服務的精神提供貓科健康和營養訊息. 診斷或治療的行為應該是由你的獸醫進行. 本網站所提供的任何獸醫建議和資訊, Feline Nutrition 不負任何責任.
 
If you have a question, please send it to answers@felinenutritionfoundation.orgWhile we cannot answer questions individually, if your question would be helpful to others, we may post it in Answers.
 
Dr. Elisa Katz, DVM, is a graduate of Ohio State University and is the owner of Natural Pet Animal Hospital in Bourbonnais, Illinois. She practices holistic and integrative medicine focusing on proper diet and nutrition. Dr. Katz shares her home with four kitties and one dog.
 
本文作者獸醫伊萊沙卡茲(Dr. Elisa Katz)畢業於美國俄亥俄州立大學(Ohio State University),目前在伊利諾州(Illinois)的 Bourbonnais 經營一家名為"自然的寵物動物醫院"(Natural Pet Animal Hospital)。她的執業是以整體和綜合醫學為主,重點在適當的食物和營養。Dr. Katz 家中有四隻貓一隻狗。
 
  1. H Lu, W Ouyang and C Huang, "Inflammation, a Key Event in Cancer Development," Molecular Cancer Research 4, No. 4, April 2006, 221-33.
  2. LG Wood, N Shivappa, BS Berthon, PG Gibson and JR Hebert, "Dietary Inflammatory Index is Related to Asthma Risk, Lung Function and Systemic Inflammation in AsthmaClinical and Experimental Allergy 45, no. 1, Jan 2015, 177-83.
  3. Ellen S. Dierenfeld, PhD,  Heather L. Alcorn, BS, and Krista L. Jacobsen, MS, "Nutrient Composition of Whole Vertebrate Prey (Excluding Fish) Fed in Zoos," U.S. Department of Agriculture, May 2002.
  4. "Butylated Hydroxyanisole," National Toxicology Program, 13th Report on Carcinogens, October 22, 2014
  5. D Cressey, "Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer," Nature, March 24, 2015.
  6. A Samsel and S Seneff, "Glyphosate, Pathways to Modern Disease IV: Cancer and Related PathologiesJournal of Biological Physics and Chemistry 15, no. 3, Jan 2015, 121-129.
  7. T Bøhna, M Cuhraa, T Traavika, M Sandenc, J Fagand and R Primiceriob, "Compositional Differences in Soybeans on the Market: Glyphosate Accumulates in Roundup Ready GM Soybeans," Food Chemistry 153, June 2014, 207–215.
  8. "Pesticide Residues in Food 2004," Report of the Joint Meeting of the FAO panel of experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues, Rome, Italy, 20-29 Sept 2004.
  9. A Bhan, I Hussain, KI Ansari, SA Bobzean, LI Perrotti and SS Mandal, "Bisphenol-A and Diethylstilbestrol Exposure Induces the Expression of Breast Cancer Associated Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR in Vitro and in VivoThe Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 141, May 2014, 160-170.
  10. C Pelucchi, C Bosetti, C Galeone and C La Vec, "Dietary Acrylamide and Cancer Risk: An Updated Meta-analysis,"International Journal of Cancer 136, no. 12, Nov 2014.
  11. DW Layton, KT Bogen, MG Knize, FT Hatch, VM Johnson and JS Felton, "Cancer Risk of Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Foods: An Analysis and Implications for ResearchCarcinogenesis 16, no. 1, Jan 1995, 39-52.


 
 


如何判斷自製貓食食譜是否理想←上一篇 │首頁│ 下一篇→磷是腎臟的關鍵