首頁 »
July 29, 2016

如何判斷自製貓食食譜是否理想


Answers: Homemade Cat Food, A Balancing Act
如何判斷自製貓食食譜是否理想

Last Updated on Saturday, January 16, 2016 08:35 PM
Published on Saturday, February 08, 2014 08:03 PM
Written by Marta Kaspar
 
最近更新:2016116
原始刊出日: 20142
作者: Marta Kaspar
 
原文出處連結: http://feline-nutrition.org/answers/answers-homemade-cat-food-a-balancing-act

 
I am confused about supplements. I make homemade raw cat food and I noticed that the recipe I use does not call for some of the vitamins, such as iron, zinc, and folic acid that are included in some prepared premixes. Is this a problem? How can I be sure the homemade recipe won't be vitamin deficient?
 
問:
營養品讓我很困惑。我自製貓生肉餐,我使用的食譜並沒有用到一些預拌粉有包含的維他命,例如鐵、鋅和葉酸。這會造成問題嗎?我要如何確定自製食譜的維他命是足夠的?
 
If you have ever been interested in nutritional science, I am sure you have come across the term "balanced diet." But what does it actually mean? According to a common definition, it is a diet that contains adequate amounts of all necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity. Sounds pretty straightforward, doesn't it? What makes this statement more complicated in the world of pet nutrition is that almost every country has its own guidelines for all of the necessary nutrients and recommended nutrient ranges can vary greatly. Most pet food companies in the United States comply with the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) guidelines. But are AAFCO's nutrient recommendations the best nutrient ranges for our pets? I don't think anybody can answer this question. What I am trying to say is that any nutrient level ranges should serve only as guidelines and not as absolute numbers.
 
答:
如果你對營養學有興趣,相信妳一定聽過"營養均衡的飲食"這個措詞。但那到底是什麼意思呢?根據一般普遍的定義,營養均衡的飲食含有適量的所有必要養分,以供應健康的成長和活動之所需。聽起來很直白,不是嗎?但是在寵物營養的世界中,幾乎每個國家對必要的養分都有一套自定的參考標準值,而且不同國家所制定的養分含量可能會有很大的不同,這讓營養均衡飲食的定義變得複雜。美國大多數的寵物食品公司,遵循的是美國飼料管理協會(簡稱AAFCO)所制定的參考標準。但是AAFCO所建議的養分含量真的就是最佳含量嗎?我不認為這個世界上有誰可以回答這個問題。我想要表達的是,任何養分含量數字都只能當做參考標準,而不是絕對的數字。
 
But let's go back to the original question. While I can't speak for all the suppliers of prepared supplement premixes, the reason why some of the vitamins, such as iron, zinc and folic acid are added to our products is that these premixes need to be versatile. They need to ensure a balanced diet for all kinds of meats and fill all of the nutritional gaps in foods with wide calorie ranges. Premix versatility is especially important in case someone is not able to provide a good food variety to their pets.
 
回到原本的問題。我無法代替所有的預拌粉業者發言,不過為什麼我們的產品中有加入某些維他命,例如鐵、鋅和葉酸,是因為預拌粉必須具備高度的適用性。他們必須能夠在搭配所有不同的肉類時,都能提供均衡的營養,補足熱量不同的食物之間的養分差異。對於無法提供寵物食物變化的飼主而言,預拌粉的通用性尤其重要。
 
Homemade recipes will vary in the supplements they call for, as will prepared premixes. This does not indicate that one is deficient compared to another. Some vitamins might not be included because the meat itself would provide the amounts needed. Since all nutrient requirements fall into a range, rather than absolute numbers, adding to the naturally occurring vitamins will ensure that enough is provided.
 
不同的自製食譜需要不同的營養補充品,預拌粉也是。但不同並不表示不足。有些維他命沒有被添加,是因為肉本身已經含有需要的量。所有養分需求值都是落在一個範圍,而不是一個絕對數字,在已經含有自然維他命的食物中補充營養品,只是要確保有提供到足夠的分量。
 
I have been involved in cat nutrition for a long time and have calculated nutrient profiles for countless recipes. What I have learned during those years is that it is not always just the numbers that matter. A lot of it is common sense. I've also learned that you don't need have to have an advanced degree to feed your cat a good healthy diet. You just need to pay attention to a couple of simple rules. Here are some basics you should know if you prepare a homemade diet for your cat:
 
我投身貓科營養的研究已經有一段很長的時間,計算過無數份食譜的養分含量。在那些年當中我學到一件事,就是重點並非只有數字而已。有很多常識也是很重要的。我還學到你並不需要擁有什麼了不起的學歷,才會知道如何選擇健康的食物餵貓。你需要的是注意一些簡單的規則。如果你是自製貓食,以下是一些你應該知道的基本事項:
 
Cats Need a High-Protein Diet
 
貓需要高蛋白質食物
 
Cats are strict carnivores. They need a high-protein, meat-based diet to thrive and do well. A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet is not suitable for them.
 
貓是絕對肉食動物。他們需要高蛋白質、以肉為主的食物才能夠成長茁壯。低蛋白質、高碳水化合物的食物並不適合貓吃。
 
Diets Without Any Additional Supplementation
 
沒有補充營養品的餵食法
 
Animals, especially cats, have unique dietary needs. In the wild they would instinctively seek and find all the nutrients they need. However, our indoor pets depend entirely on us to give them the proper diet. Frankenprey or whole prey diets try to mimic the food that would cats eat in the wild. These diets use no ground meats at all. They are made of whole meats, bones and organs and usually don't require any additional supplementation. They are probably the healthiest diets for cats but involve very careful planning and the cats have to be willing to eat all of the required meat varieties including the bone-in cuts.
 
動物,尤其是貓,有獨特的飲食需求。野外的貓會本能的尋找所需的養分。然而,室內動物則是完全仰賴主人提供適當的食物。所謂的"完整獵物餵食法"是想要摸擬貓在野外會吃的食物。這種餵食方法是不絞肉的。餵的是整塊的肉、骨頭或內臟,而且通常不加任何額外的營養品。這種餵法可能是對貓最健康的方式,但需要注意很多細節,而且貓得願意吃下所需的不同肉類,包括帶骨肉。
 
Diets with Additional Supplementation
 
有補充營養品的餵食法
 
Almost all diets other than frankenprey or whole prey diets should have certain supplements added to fill the nutritional gaps created by meat processing, using only limited cuts from the animal or removing the bones from the diet. Even if you are feeding whole carcass grinds it is safer to add some supplements because it's not really known what kind of nutrient losses occur from grinding and storage. Here are the basic guidelines:
 
除了完整獵物餵食法以外,幾乎所有其他餵食法都需要添加一些特定的營養品,以補足養分的不足,例如處理肉的過程會造成養分流失,只取用動物的特定部位,或是只使用去骨肉,也會無法獲得所有的養分。即使你餵的是整隻動物的絞肉,安全起見還是補充一些營養品,因為我們並不知道在絞肉以及貯存的過中,有什麼養分流失了。以下是一些基本的參考做法:
 
  • Always add liver and taurine. Almost all diets that are boneless or have bones, are cooked or raw, should have small amounts of liver and taurine added.
 
  • Add calcium to boneless meat. Although boneless meat alone has almost all the nutrients your cat needs for healthy growth and activity, it has almost no calcium. Therefore, if you decide to feed your cat boneless meat, you always have to add calcium.
 
  • 一定要補充肝臟和牛磺酸。幾乎所有無骨或帶骨的餵食法,不管是餵生的還是熟的,都應該要補充少量的肝臟和牛磺酸。
  • 無骨食譜要補充鈣。雖然無骨肉本身就包含幾乎所有健康成長所需的養分,但卻幾乎沒有鈣質。因此,如果你決定餵貓吃無骨肉,一定要補充鈣質。
 
Meat Variety is Important
 
變化肉類是很重要的
 
If you are not adding a prepared premix to your cat's homemade diet, but you are adding vitamins individually, be aware that meat might or might not be slightly low in some other minerals and vitamins B and E. This depends on small deficiencies that particular meats might have. These insufficiencies can be evened out by increasing meat variety.
 
如果你在自製食中沒有加入預拌粉,但有個別補充維他命,還要注意不同肉類的礦物質、維他命B和E可能會偏低一些,要看是什麼肉而定。平衡的做法是提高肉類的變化。
 
Choose the Right Supplements
 
選擇正確的營養品
 
In case you want to make your cat food with the help of a prepared multivitamin supplement premix, use only those premixes designed for homemade pet diets. Different products have slightly different compositions. It might be a good idea to change the brands from time to time, as this can help even out the nutrient profile in addition to feeding a variety of meats. If a premix is labeled for use with boneless meats then you don't need to worry about adding additional calcium because it is already included. Generic pet supplements or multivitamins designed for human consumption should not be used in homemade diets for pets at all. Individual human-grade vitamins should be added only in amounts called for in a homemade raw diet recipe.
 
如果你要使用含有多種維他命營養品的預拌粉來做貓食,務必選擇是針對自製貓食設計的預拌粉。不同的預拌粉成分組合也略有不同。時時變化預拌粉的品牌是一個好做法,因為除了變化肉類外,這麼做也可以平衡攝取的養分含量。如果包裝上有註明是無骨肉用的預拌粉,表示鈣已經有被加進去,不用再額外補充鈣。寵物通用的營養品,或是為人類設計的綜合維他命,都不應該被拿來用在自製貓食中。人類食用等級的單一維他命,使用的分量應該遵照自製生肉食譜的要求。
 
More Doesn't Always Mean Better
 
比較多並不表示比較好
 
With some vitamins, it might be safer to have your homemade diet slightly under-supplemented than considerably over-supplemented. Be especially careful with fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins D and A. Avoid adding these in concentrated forms altogether.
 
自製貓食所需要補充的某些維他命,補充分量略微不足會比過量補充來的安全。使用可以溶於脂肪的維他命時尤其要格外小心,例如維他命D和A。避免使用濃縮的維他命D和A。
 
Pay Attention to Your Cat
 
注意你的貓
 
The quality of any diet will likely have a visible effect on your cat. Try to pay close attention and monitor weight variations, the quality of your cat's coat, changes in drinking habits and activity level.
 
你採用的餵法是否理想,可以從肉眼判斷貓的變化看出來。要仔細留意以及監督體重變化、貓毛質地變化、喝水習慣以及活動量的改變。
 
譯者PS:
 
我有四隻貓是餵帶骨生肉,如同這篇文章所寫的一定要吃肝臟以及補充牛磺酸,所以每一餐(一天兩餐)都有半個鴨心(牛磺酸),以及一小塊肝臟。因為鴨心比較大顆,所以一餐給半顆,如果是給雞心,一餐就給一顆;至於肝臟大多時候是給鴨肝,有時是雞肝。此外我還會固定給大約四分之一塊的雞胗,因為雞胗比較便宜,而且在完整獵物餵食法的定義中,雞胗是屬於肉,不是內臟。另外我還會給一塊無骨肉,照片中的無骨肉是虱目魚柳。


這張照片中的無骨肉是去骨去皮鴨翅膀。完整獵物餵食法要求至少吃四種不同肉類的蛋白質,如果你有餵到四種,就不需要添加任何營養品。我還找不到四種,最多就只有三種而已,所以我有額外補充海帶粉,每天每隻貓還會給半顆魚油。
 
帶骨肉主要是給雞肉,雞全身各部位的肉都會給,除了大腿以外,因為不能餵承受身體主要重量的骨頭。這兩張照片只是剛好都是雞翅。
 
完整獵物餵食法其實有許多細節要注意,我現在沒有時間翻譯相關文章,以後有空也許會翻譯一些給大家參考。如果你無法採用這種餵法,但貓已經習慣吃生肉,可以試著訓練貓啃有骨頭的肉,一定要生的,絕對不要餵煮熟的骨頭。骨頭是天然的牙刷,願意啃帶骨肉的貓基本上是不需要刷牙的,但三不五時還是最好把貓抓來檢查牙齒。如果是從小貓就開始訓練檢查牙齒,基本上貓都會乖乖就範的。
 
Note: Feline Nutrition provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. Feline Nutrition disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.

免責聲明: Feline Nutrition (貓科營養) 基於公共服務的精神提供貓科健康和營養訊息. 診斷或治療的行為應該是由你的獸醫進行. 本網站所提供的任何獸醫建議和資訊, Feline Nutrition 不負任何責任.
 
If you have a question, please send it to answers@felinenutritionfoundation.orgWhile we cannot answer questions individually, if your question would be helpful to others, we may post it in Answers.
 
Marta Kaspar holds a master's degree in chemistry from the University of Pardubice in the Czech Republic. She is a research scientist, and a formulation and analytical chemist in both industrial and academic fields. Marta became interested in feline nutrition when her cats developed health problems. When she decided to prepare their food herself, the effect of the homemade raw meat diet on her cats was so impressive that she created the line of Alnutrin® supplements to help others transition their cats to better diets. You can find her at knowwhatyoufeed.com.

本文作者 Marta Kaspar 擁有捷克 the University of Pardubice 的化學碩士學位. 她本身既是一位從事研究的科學家, 同時也是業界和學界的程式和分析化學家. Marta 是在她的貓健康出現問題才開始對貓科營養產生興趣. 她開始自製貓食後, 在貓身上看到令人印象深刻的轉變, 促使她創立 Alnutrin 品牌預拌粉, 幫助其他的貓轉換食物. 你可以在以下連結找到她: knowwhatyoufeed.com
 


關於餵食的分量←上一篇 │首頁│ 下一篇→貓的食物與癌症風險