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April 1, 2016

閱讀寵物食品食材標籤


Reading a Pet Food Ingredient Label
閱讀寵物食品食材標籤
 

本文重點:
當你買了一個70克的雞肉鮪魚罐頭時, 產品標籤上有標示出雞肉和鮪肉的重量各是多少嗎? 並沒有. 這篇文章點出了這個問題.

乾乾成分標示的眾多名詞中, 我老是對 "雞肉餐" 感到不解, 終於在此文找到答案.

Last Updated on Saturday, January 23, 2016 07:29 PM

Published on Thursday, April 23, 2009 02:33 PM
Written by Lisa A. Pierson, DVM
 
最近更新: 2016年1月23 日
原文刊出日: 2009年4月23日
作者: 獸醫 Lisa A. Pierson, DVM
 
原文出處連結: http://feline-nutrition.org/nutrition/reading-a-pet-food-ingredient-label

 

This is where it gets tough. The current labeling system for pet foods is seriously lacking in usable information. The "guaranteed analysis" numbers that you find on a can of food simply gives a wide range of the levels of water, protein, fat, etc. that are contained in the food. You can get a rough idea of what is in the food but, ideally, it should be mandatory to put the more accurate "as fed" values on the can. However, I do not see this happening anytime soon. This would be more along the lines of the information that we find on our own packaged foods.
 
寵物食品目前的標籤系統極度缺乏有用的資訊. 罐頭上標示的 “成分分析”數字只是告訴你食物中水分, 蛋白質, 脂肪等的大約數字. 你可以知道食物中大概含有些什麼, 但是, 理想上應該是要強制的, 更精準的標示出 “攝取” 的養分量. 不過我不認為短期內這個理想會實現. 我們人類吃的食品包裝也有類似的問題.
 
Looking at the list of ingredients also gives an incomplete picture of what is actually in the food in terms of amount of each ingredient. Without knowing the actual amount of each ingredient, we have no idea of the impact of the ingredient on the nutritional profile of the food. For instance, when we see a high carbohydrate ingredient like rice on the label, we know that this food item has no business being in cat food but how do we really know the quantity of rice that is in the food? Is it present in a small amount or a large amount? This is why it is important to not just consider the list of ingredients but to also look at the protein/fat/carbohydrate profile of the food which can be seen in a chart for many commercial foods.
 
食材成分表看不出每一種食材含量到底有多少. 在不知道每一種食材確切分量的狀況下, 我們不知道在營養價值上這份食材造成的影響如何. 例如當我們在標籤上看到高碳水化合物的食材, 例如米, 我們知道貓不應該吃碳水化合物, 但是我們如何知道在這個商品中到底米的含量是多少? 是很多還是很少? 這就是為何不能光看成份表, 更重要的是同時也要看標籤中蛋白質/脂肪/碳水化合物的比例. 進入以下這個連結可以看到許多商業食品中這三種熱量的比例: http://feline-nutrition.org/attachments/CanFoodNew.html
 
譯註: 連結中主要列出的是美國市售的貓罐頭熱量比. 有一些 (還是很多?) 美國罐頭台灣並買不到. 想要知道台灣市售罐頭的成分比例, 可以到以下能量花園的連結: http://blog.xuite.net/shantih/heloisegarden
 
A good example of the above issue is a food like canned Wellness®. At first glance, this food may be dismissed as inappropriate for a carnivore because it contains several high carbohydrate ingredients in the form of fruits and vegetables. However, in reality, the low carbohydrate level (3-5%) tells us that the amount of fruits and vegetables is very low.
 
關於上述問題有一個很好的例子, Wellness的罐頭. 乍看之下這個食物可能並不適合肉食動物, 因為含有好幾種帶有碳水化合物的水果和蔬菜. 然而事實上這個罐頭的碳水極低 (3-5%), 表示其實當中含有的蔬菜和水果份量是很低的.
 
If a food that you are feeding is not included on the above list, you can contact the company and ask for the breakdown of their foods in terms of the calories that come from protein, the calories that come from fat, and the calories that come from carbohydrates. Optimally, your cat's diet should not derive more than 10 per cent of its calories from carbohydrates.
 
如果你餵的食物沒有出現在上述連結的表格中, 你可以和製造商連絡, 要求提供來自蛋白質, 脂肪和碳水的熱量分析. 理想上, 貓食中的碳水不應該超過10%.
 
The words "natural" or "premium" or "veterinarian recommended" are not necessarily indicative of high quality. Also, if you are thinking about feeding any "breed-specific" food, please don't fall for the utterly absurd claims that these companies make regarding these diets. A Siamese is no different from a Persian or a Maine Coon — or an "alley cat" — when considering optimal dietary composition.
 
包裝上標示的"自然", "頂級" 或”獸醫推荐” 字眼並不是品質保證. 還有, 如果你想要餵 “特定品種”的食物, 不要被這些公司所提出的荒謬訴求騙了. 因為在考量什麼才是最佳食物時, 一隻暹羅貓的需求, 和波斯貓, 緬因貓, 或街貓, 並沒有什麼不同.
 
Contrary to what is often believed, many, if not all, of the so-called "prescription diets" sold in veterinary hospitals are not formulated for optimal health of a carnivore. Many of these products contain corn, wheat, and soy which have no logical place in your cat's diet and these diets are often very high in carbohydrates. Many of them also contain by-products as the main - and often only - source of protein. Please note that not all by-products are inferior in quality.
 
跟大部份的人相信的相反, 許多, 也許不是全部, 在獸醫院販售的所謂”處方食品” 並不是針對肉食動物的最佳健康所調配出來的配方. 在這些處方食品中, 很多含有玉米, 小麥和黃豆, 這些東西和貓的飲食邏輯完全沾不上邊, 而且這些食材的碳水含量通常很高. 很多處方食品不但含有副產品, 而且常常副產品是主要蛋白質來源. 請注意並不是所有的副產品品質都不好.
 
It is also important to note that Hill's — the maker of Science Diet® — continues to use extremely questionable preservatives such as BHA,BHT and ethoxyquin in many of their products. Other companies have abandoned the practice of using these chemicals as preservatives — opting for more natural and safer methods. Unfortunately, many veterinarians are very poorly educated in the area of nutrition. Too often their recommendations are taken from the pet food industry which does not always have your cat's best interest in mind when formulating their products. In most instances, you will be paying far more money than you should be for the low quality ingredients that many of these prescription products contain.
 
值的注意的是希爾斯持續的使用極度令人質疑的防腐劑在許多產品中, 例如BHA, BHT以及 ethoxyquin. 其他公司已經放棄使用這些化學物當做防腐劑, 轉而選擇比較自然和安全的方式. 不幸的是, 許多獸醫在營養學這方面所受到的教育很貧乏. 有太多的時候獸醫的建議其實是來自於寵物食品公司, 這些公司在調配產品時, 並非總是把你的貓的健康列為第一考量. 大多時候, 你付出很多的錢, 買到的是食材品質極差的處方食品.
 
譯註: 以下是此文對上述三種防腐劑的解釋.
BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole丁基羥基茴香醚an antioxidant used to preserve fats and oils, generally in food.
BHA: 中文全名是丁基羥基茴香醚, 是一種抗氧化劑, 用來保存脂肪和油, 基本上是被用在食物中.
 

BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene: 2,6-二第三丁基對甲酚 a preservative antioxidant used to retard rancidity in foods, pharmaceuticals and other products containing fat or oil.
BHT: 中文譯名為2,6-二第三丁基對甲酚, 是一種抗氧化防腐劑, 被使用來延緩含有脂肪或油的食物, 藥品和其他產品腐壞的速度.

 
Ethoxyquin: A quinoline-based antioxidant used as a food preservative and a pesticide. It is commonly used as a preservative in pet foods to prevent the rancidification of fats. There is great concern that ethoxyquin in pet foods may be responsible for multiple health problems.
 
Ethoxyquin: 中譯名為乙氧喹, 一種以喹啉為基底的抗氧化物,, 用來當作食物防腐劑和農藥. 乙氧喹被普遍使用於寵物食品中, 以防止食品因為脂肪而腐壞. 寵物食品中的乙氧喹可能是造成許多健康問題的原因已經引起極大關注.
 
Look for a muscle meat (preferably, not an organ meat like liver) as the first ingredient. A muscle meat will be listed as "chicken," or "turkey," etc., not "chicken by-products" or "chicken by-product meal," or "chicken broth" or "liver." "Chicken meal" is technically a muscle meat but the term "meal" denotes that it has been rendered (cooked for a long time at very high temperatures) and is lower quality than meat that has not been as heavily processed. A "meal" product is more commonly found in dry foods. By-products can include feet, intestines, feathers, egg shells, etc. and can be less nutritious than meat. By-products can also be very nutritious organ meat but the problem is that we never really know what the term "by-products" includes.
 
尋找以肉為第一食材的食物, 最好不是內臟肉, 例如肝. 所謂的肉應該是”雞肉”, 或是”土雞肉”, 而不是"雞肉副產品” 或”雞肉副產品餐”, 或是”雞肉高湯” 或”肝”. “雞肉餐” 基本上是肉, 但是這個字表示是萃取 (render) 而來的(高溫長時間烹煮), 而且品質比沒有經過重度加工的肉還要差. 多數含有”餐”的產品是乾乾. 副產品可能含有腳, 內臟, 羽毛, 蛋殼等, 養分低於肉. 副產品也可以是很營養的內臟肉, 但問題是我們永遠都無法真正的知道副產品中到底含有哪些東西.
 
譯註: 以下是本文對 render 的解釋.
Render: A process that converts waste animal tissue into a fat commodity and a protein meal, such as meat meal or bone meal. This waste tissue can include the fatty tissue, bones, and offal , as well as entire carcasses of animals condemned at slaughterhouses, expired meat and restaurant grease.
提煉/萃取: 一種把廢棄的動物組織, 變成脂肪產品和蛋白質餐的處理方式, 例如肉餐或骨餐. 這些廢棄的動物組織包括脂肪, 骨頭, 內臟, 以及被屠宰場淘汰的動物殘骸, 過期的肉, 餐館廢油.
 
Grains should be absent but, unfortunately, grains are cheap so they are included in many commercial cat foods. Think "profit margin." Grain is cheaper than meat. If grains are present, they should be minimal in amount. This is where checking out the carbohydrate content comes into play. It is ideal to feed a grain-free diet. Corn, wheat and soy are thought to be common allergens (as is yeast) and the carbohydrate fraction of these grains will also cause a rapid rise in blood sugar in many cats. Soy contains phytoestrogens and also negatively influences the thyroid gland. Given how common hyperthyroidism is in the cat, soy has no business being in cat food. Unfortunately, soy is a common ingredient used by pet food manufacturers.
 
穀物也不應該出現, 但很不幸的是穀物很便宜, 所以大部份的商業貓食都含有穀物. 想想看”獲利率”. 穀物比肉便宜. 如果含有穀物, 分量應該要壓到最低, 才能不讓碳水化合物變成重要成分. 理想作法是餵不含穀物的食物. 玉米, 小麥和大豆被視為常見的過敏原, (酵母也是), 這些穀物的碳水化合物成分會讓許多貓的血糖迅速升高. 大豆含有植物性雌激素, 對甲狀腺有負面影響. 從甲狀腺機能亢進普遍的出現在貓身上來看, 黃豆不應該存在貓食中. 很不幸的是, 黃豆是寵物食品公司普遍使用的一種食材.
 
譯註:
台灣有兩家本土寵物食品公司, 即統一和福壽, 很巧的是他們都有在製造沙拉油. 沙拉油是抽取大豆的油脂製造而成 (黃色的大豆叫黃豆, 黑色叫黑豆). 讓人不禁懷疑他們是把抽取掉油脂的豆渣拿來做乾料.
 
Lisa Pierson graduated from UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine in 1984. Her passion for feline nutrition and how feline diseases relate to species-inappropriate diets, came about in 2002 while researching feline nutrition for her cat "Robbie" who experienced severe intestinal problems. Her practice is now limited to consulting work on such health issues she as kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, urinary tract problems, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and obesity — all with strong ties to unhealthy diets. "Learn How to Read a Pet Food Ingredient Label" first appeared on CatInfo.org and is re-posted here with her kind permission.

本文作者 Lisa Pierson 於1984年畢業於美國加州大學戴維斯分校獸醫系 (UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine). 她對貓科營養, 以及不恰當的食物所造成的疾病的熱衷研究, 起因於2012年當她的貓 Robbie 出現嚴重的腸道問題. 目前她只做線上諮詢, 針對如慢性腎衰竭, 糖尿病, 泌尿道問題, 結腸炎以及過度肥胖等問題 – 全部都和不健康的飲食有強烈關聯. 這篇文章首次出現於她的網站 CatInfo.org. 本站得到她的同意後轉登於此.
 
譯者PS 1:
以前我在讀乾乾標籤時, 對食材表中的雞肉餐中的”餐” (meal) 感到很不解. 什麼是雞肉餐? 在讀了這篇文文章之後我終於懂了, 就是把所有人類不要的, 來自動物身上的廢棄物, 甚至是過期的肉和餐廳的廢油(靠), 經過加工後產生的產品, 然後賜給這個廢棄物一個比較好聽的名字以利行銷, 所以才會出現 chicken meal 雞肉餐這種名詞. 你完全了解這三個字的字面意義, 但完全不了解隱藏其下的其實是把人類不要的垃圾再做利用然後拿出來賣錢. 即使是很貴的渴望不可及乾乾, 都含有雞肉餐. 當我對乾乾的了解越多, 我就越生氣. 你們怎麼可以把這麼爛的東西賣給我的毛小孩吃!!!!! (啊幹一百萬次)
 
像那個營造出高高在上專業形象的H牌乾乾, 甚至發出營養師執照給獸醫師, (請看以下連結), 你會懷疑獸醫的專業嗎?
http://www.vet.com.tw/news/detail.php?id=124&cid=4
 
譯者PS 2:
以下是我自己找到的文中提到的三種防腐劑的資料, 都是來自中文維基.
 
BHA
要用途是在食品(包括動物食品)、食品包裝、化妝品石油產品中起到抗氧化劑和防腐劑作用
關於BHA的爭議主要集中在它在食品中的使用。美國國家衛生研究院的研究報告認為,基於BHA在實驗動物中的致癌性,BHA是一種可疑人類致癌物。在實驗中,食物中加入的高劑量BHA使大鼠敘利亞地鼠患上了前胃處的乳頭狀瘤鱗狀細胞癌;不過BHA並沒有顯示出對小鼠的致癌性,而且甚至在一些其他動物中呈現了對其他化學物質的致癌性的保護作用。[4][5]
在BHA對人類的致癌性的調查中,統計顯示日常的低量攝入與癌症風險並沒有什麼聯繫。[6] 然而有些機構(如加利福尼亞州有關部門)仍將BHA列為人類致癌物
資料來源連結:
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B8%81%E5%9F%BA%E7%BE%9F%E5%9F%BA%E8%8C%B4%E9%A6%99%E9%86%9A
 
BHT:
是一種溶性的有機化合物。它主要在食品添加劑中被用作為抗氧化劑
 
BHT在1947年被專利。1954年被美國食品藥品監督管理局准許在食物中加入BHT來保鮮。BHT和自由基產生化學反應,並減慢食物中氧化還原反應(即酸敗反應)的速度。由此可保持食物的顏色氣味和味道。
在生產某些物質如四氫呋喃乙醚時,亦可加入BHT來避免產生有害的過氧化有機物
 
BHT的使用引起了世界的關注。日本於1958年,以及羅馬尼亞瑞典澳洲等地,BHT都被禁止加在食物中。美國則禁止在某些食物中加入BHT。不過,有些食品商自願不使用BHT,例如麥當勞於1986年開始不使用BHT。
 
資料來源連結: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,6-%E4%BA%8C%E5%8F%94%E4%B8%81%E5%9F%BA%E5%B0%8D%E7%94%B2%E9%85%9A
 
quinoline喹啉
喹啉是冶金染料聚合物以及農用化學品工業的重要中間體。它也可以用作消毒劑防腐劑以及溶劑
喹啉是有毒性的,短時間暴露在喹啉蒸汽中會導致鼻子眼睛呼吸道被腐蝕,也可能導致頭昏和噁心。長時間暴露的影響還不確定,不過喹啉與損傷有一定的關係。
資料來源連結: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%96%B9%E5%95%89
 
根據我自己看資料的經驗, 不同的來源但解釋卻指向同一個方向, 表示這是一個可信的解釋. 其實我們人類偶爾也會吃到含有防腐劑的食物, 但只是偶爾, 不是嗎? 如果你買的寵物食品含有這三種防腐劑, 然後你的貓或狗每天吃的食物都含有防腐劑, 長久下來如果沒有 生病, 那真的是神明有在保佑, 要記得叩謝神明喔.

F861
週末愉快

 


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