September 4, 2015
The Benefits of a Raw Meat Diet for Your Cat
Last Updated on Sunday, October 05, 2014 04:33 PM
Published on Monday, February 08, 2010 01:14 PM
Written by Margaret Gates
最近更新: 2014年10月5 日
作者: Margaret Gates (Feline Nutrition 網站創辦人
Cats are predators. They evolved eating a prey based diet, and more importantly, eating that diet raw. Cooking degrades nutrients in meat, causing losses of vitamins, minerals and amino acids.¹ Meat used in highly processed pet food is cooked at high temperatures and the nutrients lost must then be added back in. This supplementation is not exact, and there are nutrient losses which aren't always replaced.
貓是掠食者, 進化成吃獵物的動物, 更重要的是, 吃生的獵物. 烹煮會降低肉的養分, 造成維他命, 礦物質和胺基酸(註1)的流失. 高度加工的寵物食品所使用的肉經過高溫烹煮, 流失的養分必須用補充的方式加回來. 但是如此的補充並不精準, 而且有些養分的流失是無可替代的.
Cats in the wild eat often eat the entire prey animal if it is small and will eat nearly everything except the intestines of a larger prey animal. This includes the bones of their prey, as raw bone is highly digestible and is their primary source of calcium. Cooking bone not only reduces the nutrients available but also makes the bone brittle and dangerous to ingest.²
野外的貓抓到小型獵物時, 通常是整隻吃下去, 抓到比較大的獵物時也是幾乎整隻吃下去, 除了腸子以外. 所以他們也吃下獵物的骨頭. 生骨不但很好消化, 而且是貓主要的鈣質來源. 煮過的骨頭不僅流失養分, 而且容易斷裂, 造成消化危險.
Providing your cats with a diet that is modeled on what they would eat in the wild has many benefits, for you and your cat.
- Improved digestion
- Greatly reduced stool odor and volume
- Healthy coat, less shedding, fewer hairballs
- Increased energy
- Weight loss, if overweight
- Better dental health
- Better urinary health
- 健康亮麗的毛, 減少掉毛, 當然毛球也跟著減少了
- 減肥, 如果貓太胖
Cats are obligate carnivores, they must eat meat. Their digestive systems are adapted specifically for a meat based diet. A cat's digestive tract is short and acidic, and processes a species-appropriate raw diet highly efficiently in about 12 hours. This gives very little time for bacteria to proliferate, so cats are naturally resistant to food poisoning.³
貓是天生的肉食動物, 所以必須吃肉. 他們的消化系統是為了消化肉而設計. 貓的消化道很短而且是酸性的, 消化處理生肉的時間大約12小時, 因此細菌可以增生的時間很短, 所以貓天生具有抵抗食物中毒的能力. (註3)
Cats have no requirement for carbohydrates and limited ability to digest them. For cats, a raw meat diet is more digestible than a diet of plant based foods.⁴ Because they evolved eating a diet with almost no carbohydrates, they have only one enzyme system capable of handling them. This is quite different from humans and dogs who have multiple enzyme systems that digest carbohydrates.⁵
貓不需要碳水化合物, 所以消化碳水化合物的能力有限. 對貓而言, 肉比植物好消化. (註4), 因為進化使然, 貓的食物幾乎沒有碳水化合物, 他們只有一個酵素系統能夠處理碳水化合物. 人類和狗有多重的酵素系統可以消化碳水化合物, 和貓不一樣. (註5)
Greatly Reduced Stool Odor and Volume
When cats are fed a proper diet, their bodies use most of their food, so there is much less stool volume. Stool production can be cut in half. They also eliminate less often, sometimes once a day or even less. Their stools are often dry, a little crumbly and hardly smell at all. In the wild, this makes sense for a predator that is small enough to also have to worry about being preyed upon itself. It wouldn't want to be leaving too many smelly advertisements of its presence.
當貓吃的是符合物種的食物時, 他們的身體會做最大的利用和吸收, 所以大便的量會減少很多, 可能只有以前的一半. 大便的次數當然也跟著滅少, 有時候一天一次, 甚至更少. 吃生肉的貓大便通常是乾的, 有點易碎, 而且幾乎沒有味道. 野外的貓不會留下味道, 讓自己變成被獵捕的目標, 所以貓的大便沒有味道是有原因的.
When cats are fed a diet with a large amount of carbohydrates, their systems will struggle to digest the excess carbs. Since much of what they eat isn't being efficiently processed by their systems, the amount of waste is much greater than it should be. Those big, gloppy, smelly puddles in the litter box are not normal.
如果貓吃的食物含有大量的碳水化合物, 他們的消化系統必須努力掙扎消化這些過多的糖份. 他們的身體無法有效率的消化糖份, 當然大部份是變成廢物被排出體外. 所以吃乾料的貓大便又多又臭, 而且比較軟.
Healthy Coat, Less Shedding, Fewer Hairballs
健康亮麗的毛, 減少掉毛, 當然毛球也跟著減少了
After a few weeks on a raw diet, people notice that their cat's coat has gotten softer and silkier. Cats require unsaturated fatty acids,omega-6 and omega-3, in their diets. These need to be from animal sources, as cats have a limited ability to make these acids from plant derived precursors. These essential fatty acids contribute to healthy skin and coats, reducing shedding and thus the incidence of hairballs.⁶
吃生肉幾週後, 你會注意到貓毛變的比較軟, 比較柔順. 貓需要從食物中獲得不飽和脂肪酸, 即omega 6 和 omega 3, 而且要從動物獲得, 來自植物的不飽和脂肪酸, 貓利用的能力有限. 這些必須脂肪酸對貓毛和皮膚有好處, 減少掉毛, 所以毛球也跟著少了.(註6)
After switching to a raw diet, people notice how much more energy their cats have. Couch potatoes start running around and playing! Through a species-appropriate raw diet, cats are getting more readily available energy from their food.
改吃生肉後, 貓主人會注意到貓變的更有活力. 以前老是懶洋洋的貓開始跑來跑去. 因為吃了符合物種的食物, 貓的身體得到更多的能量.
Cats are uniquely adapted to utilize protein for their energy requirements. Cats essentially "burn" protein, turning it into energy in their liver in a process called gluconeogenesis. Animals such as dogs and humans also burn protein in this way, but turn it on and off depending on how much protein is available. Cats can't do this; their "burn rate" is always on high, thus their absolute requirement for high quality protein from meat sources.⁷
貓天生具有獨特的能力利用蛋白質, 轉成身體需要的能量. 蛋白質在肝進行"燃燒", 轉化成熱量, 這個過程稱之為糖質新生. 狗和人類也是用這種方式在燃燒蛋白質, 燃燒的開關是開開關關的, 視蛋白質的供應量而定. 但貓卻不是如此, 他們的”燃燒率”一直都是高的, 因此他們需要來自肉的優質蛋白質.(註7)
譯註 / 糖質新生作用的維基說明如下:
If your cats are overweight, they will most likely start to lose weight on a raw diet. Cats will overeat when fed an improper diet, trying to make up for the nutritional deficiencies in the food. Usually they won't overeat when fed a species-appropriate raw diet, as the diet is satisfying to them. They don't feel hungry all the time. Cats that used to wake you up in the middle of the night for food, acting as if they are starving, start sleeping right through the night. The increase in energy they have will also help them burn off more calories.
如果你的貓太胖, 吃生肉餐可以減肥. 當你餵貓吃了不合適的食物時, 他們必須要吃很多才能獲得足夠的養分, 所以變成吃下過量的食物. 如果他們吃的是適合物種的食物, 他們通常不會吃過多, 因為身體的需要已獲得滿足. 貓不再時時感到肚子餓. 以前他們會在半夜叫你起床吵著要吃飯, 吃全肉後變成一覺到天亮. 活力提高後也有助於燃燒熱量.
(減肥乾乾 my ass!)
Better Dental Health
Just as in humans, dental health in cats partly depends on genetics. Cats in the wild usually don't have gum disease or tooth loss due to periodontal disease. Why? Chewing on raw bones, meat, connective tissue, skin and fur helps keep the teeth clean. Carbohydrates create a starchy film that promotes plaque buildup and encourages gum disease. Carbohydrate laden food will not help control tartar. Reducing or eliminating carbohydrates in your cats diet will help keep dental disease at bay, and providing raw meaty bones to chew on is "nature's toothbrush" for cats.⁸ This is important as the bacteria from dental infections can spread to other parts of the body.
和人類一樣, 貓的口腔健康部份取決於基因. 野外的貓通常沒有牙周病或掉牙等牙週問題. 為什麼? 因為咀嚼獵物的生骨, 生肉, 皮膚和皮毛等能幫助清潔口腔. 碳水化合物會形成一層澱粉薄膜, 造成牙垢累積, 進而變成牙週病. 碳水化合物高的食物並無法控制牙結石. 減少或是完全去除貓食中的碳水化合物才能保持口腔健康, 給貓生骨頭啃等於給貓一根"天然的牙刷". (註8) 這是很重要的, 因為口腔感染而產生的細菌是會擴散到身體其他部位的.
譯者靠腰 (just a quick rant)
大部份的乾料含有30%以上的碳水化合物. 碳水化合物等於糖你知道嗎? 我們小時候不是被醇醇教誨吃糖會蛀牙嗎?! 可是換成貓卻變成吃糖(乾乾)可以預防牙結石保持口腔清潔?! 可笑的是這麼荒繆的論點卻獲得壓倒性多數人的認同. This is really a shitty world and you kibble-worship people are just simply too stupid.
Better Urinary Health
Raw diets have a high moisture content of about 65 to 70% that mimics that of natural prey; a mouse is 65-75% moisture. Carbohydrate laden, low moisture foods, specifically dry food, cause alkaline urine and chronic dehydration in cats. This can lead to urinary tract inflammation. Because they get enough moisture in their food, cats in the wild don't often have urinary tract problems.⁹
生肉餐中有65%到70%的水分, 這是模擬貓的自然獵物的水分. 一隻老鼠的水分約65%-75%. 含有大量的碳水化合物, 低水份的貓食, 尤其是乾飼料, 會造成尿中含鹼量過高, 以及慢性脫水, 形成尿道炎. 因為已經從食物中得到足夠的水份, 所以野外的貓得到尿道問題的並不常見. (註9)
Peace of Mind
也許餵生肉餐最大的好處是安心. 因為大家發現適合貓吃的食物處理過程越簡單越好, 所以很多人開始對過度加工的貓食感到憂心. 生肉餐沒有過度加工. 食材單純而且肉眼可以看的到, 處理過程很單純, 而且是在新鮮的狀態下餵食, 不然也是立刻冷凍起來. 你完全知道你的貓吃了什麼.
"Raw meat is the natural food of the cat, and is really the 'gold standard' of diets for any obligatory carnivore."
Elizabeth Hodgkins, DVM
From Your Cat: Simple New Secrets to a Longer, Stronger Life
“你的貓” (Your Cat”) 一書的作者 Elizabeth Hodgkins, DVM寫道:
Margaret Gates is the founder the Feline Nutrition Foundation.
註1. N. Gerber, M. R. L. Scheedera, and C. Wenk, "The Influence of Cooking and Fat Trimming on the Actual Nutrient Intake from Meat, "Meat Science 81, January 2009, 148-154.
註2. Dr. Bruce Syme, BVSc (Hons), "Feeding Raw Bones to Cats and Dogs."
註3. U.S. National Research Council Ad Hoc Committee on Dog and Cat Nutrition, Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats, 2006, 7-10.
註4. S. D. Crissey, J. A. Swanson, B. A. Lintzenich, B. A. Brewer, and K. A. Slifka, "Use of a Raw Meat-Based Diet or a Dry Kibble Diet for Sand Cats (Felis Margarita)," Journal of Animal Science 75, 1997, 2154-2160.
註5. Claudia A. Kirk, Jacques Debraekeleer, and P. Jane Armstrong, "Normal Cats," Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 4th ed. Walsworth Publishing Company, 2000, 297-299.
註6. John E. Bauer, DVM, PhD, DACVN, "Facilitative and Functional Fats in Diets of Cats and Dogs," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 229, no. 5, September 1, 2006.
註7. Elizabeth M. Hodgkins, DVM, Esq., Your Cat: Simple Secrets to a Longer, Stronger Life, Thomas Dunne Books, 2007, 5-6.
註8. David A. Fagan, DDS, Dental Consultant and Mark S. Edwards, PhD, Nutritionist, "Influence of Diet Consistency on Periodontal Disease in Captive Carnivores," The Colyer Institute, 2009.
註9. Elizabeth M. Hodgkins, DVM, Esq, Your Cat: Simple New Secrets to a Longer, Stronger Life, Thomas Dunne Books, 2007, 167-171.