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2015/04/08

​日本人開始反省,台灣人卻緬懷二戰皇軍

前陣子台灣的公共電影播出美國人協助抗日「飛虎隊」的歷史紀錄片「飛虎傳奇」,其中有講到「飛虎隊」對台灣新竹的轟炸,還有日本人如何在中國作戰及他們的抵抗。由於「飛虎隊」在台灣已經變成「政治不正確」,其領導者陳納德將軍的銅像也早就被陳水扁於台北市長任內丟棄。台灣更是柯文哲競選台北市長期間便有一股「我們都是皇民後裔」的巨大聲浪,批評美軍轟炸台灣的言論此起彼落。或許,以下的報導可以讓這些人瞭解部份日本人現在的看法。

「飛虎傳奇」紀錄片主持人蔡詩萍訪問王立本教授:現在還談「飛虎隊」對台灣有何意義?他說,二次大戰的意義在於人類反抗法西斯而免於更多人被奴役。話雖如此,但我發現台灣社會卻不作如此想,很多人只怪美軍轟炸台灣的日軍基地,不怪日本利用台灣基地侵略亞洲!?據報導,日本九州大學在二戰期間曾把1945年在日本福岡上空被擊落的美軍B29轟炸機美國飛行員活體解剖。至少有8人遭九州大學醫學部教授解剖。一名日本教授後來回憶道,「這些(美軍)戰犯見我們穿著白大褂,意識到我們是醫生」,以為是要給他們療傷,就放下戒心而沒有掙扎,「他們做夢也想不到自己會被活活解剖」,一名美國飛行員甚至微笑著對護士說:「謝謝。」。

在這「日本式治療」的醫學試驗中,多名九州大學醫學部教授向這些美國飛行員體內注射稀釋海水、切除他們的肺葉以及其他臟器,以觀察他們能存活多長時間,同時向學生們講解「注意事項」、「要點」。最終,8名美國飛行員全部死亡。1948年3月11日,30名日本人因涉嫌活體解剖、非法切除人體內臟、食用美軍戰俘內臟等罪名在橫濱一家法庭受審。1950年9月,駐日美軍司令道格拉斯•麥克阿瑟推動減免了對這些日本戰犯的刑罰。截至1958年,這幾十名日本戰犯已經全部獲釋,先前所判死刑無一執行。

今年3月,九州大學醫學部多名教授在一次會議上達成共識,促成校方公開展出這段黑暗歷史。

這個消息不只在中文媒體出現,在英文媒體也廣泛被介紹。想到台灣參加皇軍的飛行員劉與坤洋洋得意的說他打下了56架美國飛機,不禁想到「飛虎隊」如何對抗日本,他們也彼此告誡千萬別被日本人活捉。到底「日本式治療」屠殺了多少美國飛行員呢?

台灣的空軍基地作為日本進行法西斯戰爭的工具,只因為它在台灣就不可以被轟炸嗎?「飛虎隊」與中國空軍在二戰中轟炸日軍佔領區的日軍,所在地也是中國啊!其中如緬甸、泰國、菲律賓戰場,當地人也不會認為他們對抗日本有錯!連日本沖繩居民也對日本皇軍要他們集體自殺的過去不滿卻不怪「美國侵略」呢! 

為什麼這麼多台灣人站在日本皇軍這邊呢? 

我特別引用一些英文報導,是為了避免台灣許多仇中到極點的讀者「以人廢言」。值得思考的是,為什麼當有些日本人開始反省之時,台灣人卻開始緬懷二戰皇軍呢?

Blackjack 2015/4/8

link:

台灣不應認同二戰軸心國德、日的核心價值:再談美軍轟炸台灣
台灣人參加南京大屠殺vs.美軍轟炸台灣
美軍為何轟炸台灣?你必須知道的台灣歷史真相!
中華民國於二戰轟炸台灣,那台籍日本兵為天皇殺了多少人?
日本人屠殺了多少無辜的台灣人?() 尹章義

美國人不會忘,台灣人不想知道

 日曾活體解剖8名美飛行員 北京新浪網 (2015-04-06 00:59)

九州大學教授反省悔悟新開博物館揭驚天罪證
一家博物館4日在日本西部福岡縣正式對外開放。尤其引人注意的是,這家博物館展品中包括1945年日本教授對被俘美國飛行員進行活體解剖的罪證。長期以來,日本九州大學對二戰期間犯下的這樁罪行諱莫如深,拒絕在公開場合觸碰這一話題。但該大學多名教授在近期一次會議中達成共識,認為必須正視這所大學歷史上的「黑暗篇章」。
揭露驚人罪行
這家醫學史博物館位於日本九州大學校園內,展示了九州大學醫學部過去100多年來的發展歷史。
日本共同社報導,這家博物館展品共63件,包括病歷、醫療器械等。令人倍感沉重的是,其中兩件展品為九州大學醫學部教授在二戰期間活體解剖8名美國飛行員的證據。
1945年,一架美軍B29轟炸機在日本福岡上空被擊落,多名美國飛行員被俘。當時共有多少名美國飛行員被日方俘獲成為歷史謎團,但能夠確認其中8人遭九州大學醫學部教授活體解剖。
一名參与解剖美國飛行員的日本教授後來回憶道,「這些(美軍)戰犯見我們穿著白大褂,意識到我們是醫生」,以為是要給他們療傷,就放下戒心而沒有掙扎,「他們做夢也想不到自己會被活活解剖」。
一些資料顯示,一名美國飛行員甚至微笑著對護士說:「謝謝。」
在所謂醫學試驗中,多名九州大學醫學部教授向這些美國飛行員體內注射稀釋海水、切除他們的肺葉以及其他臟器,以觀察他們能存活多長時間,同時向學生們講解「注意事項」、「要點」。最終,8名美國飛行員全部死亡。
美國態度逆轉
二戰結束后,盟軍在東京、橫濱、馬尼拉等地設立法庭審判日本戰犯。1948年3月11日,30名日本人因涉嫌活體解剖、非法切除人體內臟、食用美軍戰俘內臟等罪名在橫濱一家法庭受審。
美國《巴爾的摩太陽報》報導,這30人中,23人最終被定罪,其中5人被判死刑、4人終身監禁、14人被判較輕刑罰。
然而,據這家美國報紙披露,隨著1950年6月朝鮮戰爭爆發,美國開始把日本視為盟友,對追究日本二戰罪行的態度發生逆轉。
1950年9月,駐日美軍司令道格拉斯•麥克阿瑟推動減免了對這些日本戰犯的刑罰。截至1958年,這幾十名日本戰犯已經全部獲釋,先前所判死刑無一執行。
呼籲正視歷史
多年來,九州大學對活體解剖事件諱莫如深,從不在公開場合觸碰這一話題。日本國內不少人對此表示反感,堅持認為應該正視歷史。
二戰結束后,一名曾經參与活體解剖的日本教授自殺;14名九州大學教職員工因戰爭罪行被判終身監禁、死刑等。今年3月,九州大學醫學部多名教授在一次會議上達成共識,促成校方公開展出這段黑暗歷史。
楊舒怡(新華社特稿)
(原標題:日曾活體解剖8名美飛行員)


詳全文 日曾活體解剖8名美飛行員-國際新聞-新浪新聞中心 http://news.sina.com.tw/article/20150406/14125012.html

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日本教授活體解剖罪證公開:8名美軍飛行員遇害 北京新浪網 (2015-04-06 02:39) 
一家博物館4日在日本西部福岡縣正式對外開放。引人注意的是,這家博物館展品中包括1945年日本教授對被俘美國飛行員進行活體解剖的罪證。
長期以來,日本九州大學對二戰期間該校教授犯下的這樁罪行諱莫如深,拒絕在公開場合觸碰這一話題。但該大學多名教授在近期一次會議中達成共識,認為必須正視這所大學歷史上的「黑暗篇章」。
手段殘忍
切除臟器 觀察被害者能存活多久
這家醫學史博物館位於日本九州大學校園內,展示了九州大學醫學部過去100多年來的發展歷史。
日本共同社報導,這家博物館展品共63件,包括病歷、醫療器械等。令人倍感沉重的是,其中兩件展品為九州大學醫學部教授在二戰期間活體解剖8名美國飛行員的證據。
1945年,一架美軍B29轟炸機在日本福岡上空被擊落,多名美國飛行員被俘。當時共有多少名美國飛行員被日方俘獲成為歷史謎團,但能夠確認其中8人遭九州大學醫學部教授活體解剖。
在所謂醫學試驗中,多名九州大學醫學部教授向這些美國飛行員體內注射稀釋海水、切除他們的肺葉以及其他臟器,以觀察他們能存活多長時間,同時向學生們講解「注意事項」、「要點」。最終,8名美國飛行員全部死亡。
美日變盟友
涉嫌活體解剖戰犯竟全部獲釋
二戰結束后,盟軍在東京、橫濱、馬尼拉等地設立法庭審判日本戰犯。1948年3月11日,30名日本人因涉嫌活體解剖、非法切除人體內臟、食用美軍戰俘內臟等罪名在橫濱一家法庭受審。
美國《巴爾的摩太陽報》報導,這30人中,23人最終被定罪,其中5人被判死刑、4人被判終身監禁、14人被判較輕刑罰。
然而,據這家美國報紙披露,隨著1950年6月朝鮮戰爭爆發,美國開始把日本視為盟友,對追究日本二戰罪行的態度發生逆轉。
1950年9月,駐日美軍司令道格拉斯•麥克阿瑟推動減免了對這些日本戰犯的刑罰。截至1958年,這幾十名日本戰犯已經全部獲釋,先前所判死刑無一執行。
真相未被遺忘
作家以此為原型創作小說獲獎
多年來,九州大學對活體解剖事件諱莫如深,從不在公開場合觸碰這一話題。日本國內不少人對此表示反感,堅持認為應該正視歷史。
二戰結束后,一名曾經參与活體解剖的日本教授自殺;14名九州大學教職員工因戰爭罪行被判終身監禁、死刑等。
日本作家遠藤周作以這段黑暗歷史為原型,1957年發表小說《海與毒藥》,獲新潮獎和每日新聞出版文學獎。1986年,根據小說改編的同名電影在日本上映。
今年3月,九州大學醫學部多名教授在一次會議上達成共識,認為校方不應繼續迴避這段黑暗歷史。最終,九州大學決定把幾件罪證作為展品,在新開幕的博物館中向民眾公開。據新華社
聲音
這些(美軍)戰俘見我們穿著白大褂,意識到我們是醫生,以為是要給他們療傷,就放下戒心而沒有掙扎,他們做夢也想不到自己會被活活解剖。
——一名參与解剖美國飛行員的日本教授後來回憶道。


詳全文 日本教授活體解剖罪證公開:8名美軍飛行員遇害-國際新聞-新浪新聞中心 http://news.sina.com.tw/article/20150406/14125312.html

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US prisoners of war had parts of their brains and livers removed during WWII, new Japanese exhibit shows

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/us-prisoners-of-war-had-parts-of-their-brains-and-livers-removed-during-wwii-new-japanese-exhibit-shows-10159183.html
A Japanese university museum will break taboo with an exhibition on the infamous live vivisections of American POWs during the Second World War.
Kyushu University’s medical school will for the first time publicly acknowledge that captured US troops had parts of their brains and livers removed in a series of macabre experiments carried out by the university’s medical personnel during WWII.
The dark chapter, explained by two items out of 63 in the exhibit, follows nine American air force personnel, who bailed out of their damaged B-29 aircraft over the Kumamoto and Oita prefectures on 5 May, 1945, before they were captured by Japanese troops.
Captain Marvin Watkins was taken to Tokyo for interrogation, while his eight surviving men were transferred to a military doctor and transported to Kyoto Imperial University’s College of Medicine – the predecessor of the current institution. 
In 1948, testimony against 30 doctors and university staff claimed in an Allied War Crimes tribunal in Yokohama that the men were subject to a range of ‘treatments’.
These included intravenous injections of seawater, in order to determine whether salt water could be used as a substitute for saline injections, as well as live vivisections.
Some of the men had parts of their liver removed to determine if they could survive, and others had sections of the brains taken out to see if this would be a cure for epilepsy.
None of the men survived but their remains were preserved in formaldehyde until the end of the war, when those involved destroyed the evidence, the Daily Telegraph reported.
The tribunal later found 23 men guilty. One individual killed himself in prison during the trial, but five were sentenced to death, four to life prison sentences and the rest received shorter sentences.
General Douglas MacArthur, the military governor of Japan, later commuted all the sentences and reduced the prison sentences in 1950. By the end of the decade all involved in the case had been released.
The tribunal never found the university guilty of systematically contributing to the deaths of the men – despite the 23 convictions – but the institution has avoided addressing the subject publicly.
A professor’s meeting in March elected to shed a small light on this role, adding the two items – including a panel explaining the actions of the staff – to the exhibition.
Other instances of human vivisections are known to have been conducted by Japanese troops during the same period.
Infamous Unit 731, a biological warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army, carried out thousands of vivisections in northern China. Many of those responsible have never been held accountable for their actions.

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http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/11517759/American-POWs-used-for-live-experiments-in-Japan-according-to-new-museum.html
American POWs used for live experiments in Japan, according to new museum
Eight crew of a US bomber shot down in May 1945 used in medical experiments in a case that Japan has tried to forget
By Julian Ryall, Tokyo
9:39AM BST 06 Apr 2015
A university museum in Japan has broken a seven-decade taboo on discussing the dissection of live US prisoners of war by medical personnel towards the end of the Second World War.
The museum opened on Saturday in the grounds of Kyushu University, in the city of Fukuoka, and details more than a century of innovation at one of Japan's foremost medical schools. But one small section provides details of a darker chapter in the university's history, according to Kyodo News.
A B-29 Superfortress that had taken off from the Pacific island of Guam and completed a bombing run against an airfield near Fukuoka was rammed by a Japanese fighter on May 5, 1945. Local records indicate that 12 of the crew bailed out, but one died when his parachute cords were severed by another fighter and two others were stabbed to death by local people when they landed.
documents on September 1 1945 aboard the USS Missouri (REUTERS)
Nine of the crew were taken into custody, with Capt. Marvin Watkins separated from his men and sent to Tokyo for interrogation. The remainder were handed over to a military physician and transported to Kyoto Imperial University's College of Medicine, the predecessor of the modern-day institution.
In testimony against 30 doctors and university personnel presented to a hearing of the Allied War Crimes tribunal in Yokohama in 1948, it was claimed that doctors gave the POWs intravenous injections of seawater to test if it could serve as a substitute for sterile saline solution.
Others had parts of their livers removed to determine if they could survive. Another experiment was to determine whether epilepsy could be controlled through the removal of part of the brain.
None of the crew of the aircraft survived and their remains were preserved in formaldehyde until the end of the war, when the doctors attempted to cover their tracks by destroying the evidence.
One doctor committed suicide in prison before the trial and charges of cannibalism were dropped due to a lack of evidence, but 23 people were found guilty of carrying out vivisection or the wrongful removal of body parts.
Five were sentenced to death, four received life prison terms and the rest received shorter sentences.
Two years later, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the military governor of Japan, commuted all the death sentences and reduced most of the prison terms. By 1958, every one of the people involved in the case had been released.
The university has for seven decades been keen to avoid discussing the incident, but it came up at a meeting of professors in March and it was agreed to include the details of the case in the display.



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