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September 29, 2017

帕頓哲醫生的貓生食實驗 (1932-1942)


Answers: Who Were Pottenger's Cats and Do They Matter?
帕頓哲醫生的貓生食實驗 (1932-1942)
 
Updated: Wednesday, September 13, 2017 06:17 PM
Published: Monday, September 04, 2017 03:21 PM
Written by Guillermo Diaz, MV
 
原文最近更新日期:2017年9月13日
原始刊出日:2017年9月4日
作者:獸醫基勒摩.迪亞茲
譯者:謝凱特(aka酒鬼)
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/answers/answers-who-were-pottengers-cats-and-do-they-matter

 

I am new to the idea of feeding raw meat diets to cats, so I have been trying to learn as much as I can on the subject. I have seen references to a study done a long time ago by a Dr Pottenger on raw diets for cats. Is this study still useful?
 
問:
我是餵貓生食的新手,努力學習相關知識中。有人要我去閱讀帕頓哲醫師的貓吃生食研究,那是一個很多年前做的實驗,研究所得適用於現在嗎?
 
If you are reading up on raw meat diets for cats, at some point the name Pottenger will come up. The Pottenger studies done in the 1930s are sometimes cited as proof that a raw meat diet is superior to a cooked meat diet. In this article I will explain the basic studies Dr Pottenger did and discuss whether they are relevant to feeding cats raw meat diets today.
 
答:
如果你正在爬文閱讀貓生食相關知識,帕頓哲的名字早晚會出現在你的爬文中。這個在1930年代進行的研究,有時候會被拿來當作生肉優於熟肉的證據。本文我會解釋帕頓哲醫生所做的基本研究,也會討論這個研究和今日餵貓吃生肉有無相關性。
 
Doctor Francis Marion Pottenger Jr. was a doctor of human medicine who was very concerned about heat-labile nutrients in food that were available in the raw form of the food, but were then destroyed by heat when the food was cooked. He conducted a multi-generation nutrition study between 1932 and 1942, to determine the effects of heat-processed food on 900 cats.¹ The study shows the effects of consuming denatured foods and describes in detail all of the physical and emotional problems which developed in the cooked diet fed animals that never occurred in those on the raw foods. The cooked diet cats never even got past the third generation since they lost fertility and the ability to reproduce.
 
帕頓哲醫生是一位人醫,他十分關切生食中原有的養分煮熟後遭到破壞。在1932-1942年之間,他在前後總共900隻貓身上,進行了一個持續數代的研究,以瞭解食物加熱後所造成的影響(註1)。這個研究顯示吃下本質遭到破壞的食物所造成的影響,詳細記錄吃熟食的貓身體和情緒出現的問題,反觀生食貓完全沒有出現這些問題。吃熟食的貓只繁衍到第三代,因為失去生育力。
 
Dr. Pottenger originally had the cats because he used them in his studies to help human patients. The cats had their adrenal glands removed as part of his research. Otherwise, they were healthy and well cared for. They were fed cooked meat scraps which included internal organ meats and bones along with some additional raw milk and cod liver oil. This diet provided what at the time was considered an optimal amount of nutrients and the cats seemed healthy. Nevertheless, the cats had an unexplainably high mortality rate. Then, due to a change in the number of cats in the study, raw meat scraps replaced the cooked meat in the diet of certain cats. Within a very short period of time the mortality rate dropped significantly. The raw meat fed animals began to have much better survival rates and they continued on a superior quality of health. Pottenger then began ordering raw meat scraps from a local meat packing plant - including organs, meat, and bones - and fed a separate group of cats from this supply. Within months this separate group appeared in better shape than the cooked meat group and their offspring were healthier. Pottenger was intrigued by what he termed “heat label factors" and he asked himself if the cooking process somehow rendered food nutritionally deficient, causing eventual physiological degeneration.
 
一開始帕頓哲醫生擁有一些貓是為了進行幫助人類病患的研究。這些貓的腎上腺必須移除以進行研究。除此之外這些貓都身體健康而且受到良好照顧。貓的食物是煮熟的碎肉,包括內臟肉、骨頭、一些生乳和魚肝油。在當時如此的食物被認為是最營養的,貓看起來也似乎很健康。可是貓的死亡率卻很高,而且原因不明。接著,因為被研究的貓數量的改變,某些貓的食物由熟肉改為生肉。在一段很短的時間內,死亡率明顯下降。吃生肉的貓開始出現比較好的生存率,身體也比較健康。帕頓哲開始跟附近一家肉品包裝工廠訂購生碎肉,包括內臟、肉和骨頭,挑選出一群貓只餵生肉。幾個月之後,這群吃生肉的貓身體狀況似乎比吃熟食的貓還要好,而且生肉貓的後代也比較健康。帕頓哲自創「加熱變化因子」一詞,對此現象感到好奇,自問是否烹煮過程減低養分,終至破壞身體功能。
 
He decided then to begin a controlled scientific study which can be divided into two parts: the meat study and the milk study. For the purpose of the study the animals were divided into different groups where they were fed either cooked or raw animal-based foods. This consisted of cooked meat versus raw meat, and pasteurized dairy versus raw dairy. The cats chosen for the study were kept in open air pens with a yard four feet wide, seven feet high and twelve feet long.
 
他決定進行一個控管的科學研究,把研究分成兩個部份,即肉研究和牛奶研究。以研究為目的,他把動物分成不同的組別,食物是來自動物的熟食或生食。組別有「熟食」和「生食」比對組,「經過巴氏消毒法的牛乳」和「生乳」比對組。進行研究的貓關在開放的庭院,空間是122公分寬,210公分高,366公分長。
 
Meat Study
 
肉研究
 
Pottenger divided this study into two groups. In Group A, the cats were fed a diet of 2/3 raw meat, 1/3 raw milk, and cod-liver oil. In Group B, they were fed a diet of 2/3 cooked meat, 1/3 raw milk, and cod-liver oil.
 
帕頓哲把肉研究分成兩組。A組的貓吃2/3生肉、1/3生乳和魚肝油。B組的貓吃2/3熟肉、1/3生乳和魚肝油。
 
The cats fed the all-raw diet were healthy while the cats fed the cooked-meat diet developed various health problems. By the end of the first generation the cooked-meat cats started to develop degenerative diseases and became quite sedentary. By the end of the second generation, the cats had developed degenerative diseases, changes in their skeletal structure were evident and the calcium content of their bones had fallen to ten percent. At sixteen weeks of age the second generation raw-meat kittens weighed 2000 grams average while the second generation cooked-meat animals only weighed about 1600 grams.
 
吃生肉的貓身體健康,吃熟肉的貓出現不同的健康問題。在第一代貓結束之前,吃熟肉的貓開始出現健康受損的疾病,而且不愛動。第二代貓結束之前,貓已經生病、頭骨結構明顯改變、骨頭中的鈣含量降到10%。第二代貓十六週大時,生肉組的小貓體重是2000公克,熟肉組的小貓體重只有大約1600公克。
 
By the end of the third generation the cooked-meat cats had developed degenerative diseases very early in life and some were born blind and weak and had a much shorter life span. Many of the third generation cats couldn't even reproduce. Most of these adult cats were void of interest in sex and those that attempted to mate could only produce stillborn litters. Kittens of the third generation did not survive six months. The cats died out totally by the fourth generation. Skin diseases and allergies increased from an incidence of five percent in normal cats to over 90 percent in the third generation of deficient cats. The fur of the deficient cats lost its sheen and shedding was noticeable. Males became docile while females became more aggressive. The skull was considerably smaller, flat with pointed features and the bones were paper thin and soft like sponge rubber. The calcium content of the bone had fallen to a low three percent by weight. On the other hand, the raw meat animals continued to reproduce healthy offspring generation after generation.
 
第三代結束前,熟肉組的貓年紀很輕就開始生病,有些天生失明而且身體虛弱,生命週期短很多。許多第三代貓甚至無法繁衍下一代。這群成貓大多缺乏性趣,交配成功的也只能生下死胎。第三代小貓沒有存活超過六個月。到第四代時所有的貓皆已死亡。正常貓的皮膚和過敏比率是5%,但第三代熟肉貓的比率超過90%。不健康的貓毛髮沒有光澤,而且掉毛明顯。公貓溫順但母貓更兇。頭骨變小很多、扁平且突出,骨頭又薄又軟。骨頭中的鈣重量掉到3%。反觀另一組生肉貓則是繼續健康的繁衍後代。
 
Milk Study
 
牛奶研究
 
In this study, the cats were fed 2/3 milk and 1/3 meat. All groups were fed raw meat with different groups getting raw, pasteurized, evaporated or sweetened condensed milk.
 
在這個研究中貓的食物是2/3牛奶加1/3肉。全部組別都吃生肉,但分別搭配生乳、消毒過的牛乳、淡乳(水分比鮮乳少一半)或是加糖煉乳。
 
The raw milk fed cats were the healthiest; they moved about the pen with a great agility and coordination. Their fur was shiny and soft and they presented normal sexual interest. They would land on their feet when thrown in the air.
 
吃生乳的貓最健康,行動敏捷,協調力良好。毛髮光亮柔軟,性趣正常。把貓抱起來往上抛時,貓會以四肢著地。
 
The cats not being fed raw milk exhibited varying degrees of health problems similar to the previous cooked meat study.
 
沒有吃生乳的貓則出現不同程度的健康問題,類似之前熟肉的研究。
 
The pasteurized milk fed cats moved about the pen in a manner quite different from the raw milk fed cats and some developed arthritis, skeletal changes and lessened reproductive efficiency. Lethargy was present in all of these cats, with apparently no energy at all. Their offspring presented progressive constitutional and respiratory problems. These animals exhibited an impaired sense of coordination when thrown a short distance. Dental deterioration, abscesses and gingiva inflammation were a frequent finding. All of these changes were similar to the cats of the first, second and third generations eating cooked meat.
 
吃消毒過牛乳的貓,走動的方式和吃生乳的貓很不一樣,而且有些出現關節炎、骨骼變化,繁殖力下降的問題。這組所有的貓都不愛動,很明顯的沒有活力。繁衍出的後代出現持續性的體質和呼吸道問題。把這組貓往外抛出短距離時,可以看到身體協調力受損。牙齒惡化、膿瘍以及口腔發炎是常見狀況。所有這些變化,都和吃熟肉的第一、第二和第三代貓類似。
 
The evaporated milk fed cats showed even greater deterioration than their pasteurized milk fed counterparts with the most marked deficiencies occurring amongst those fed sweetened condensed milk.
 
吃淡乳的貓健康惡化程度高於吃消毒過牛乳的貓,煉乳貓最顯著的健康缺陷,也出現在淡乳貓之中。
 
The sweetened condensed milk fed cats not only had their milk heat-processed, but there was the addition of sugar. There was marked deterioration in coordination and dental abnormalities in this group. These cats developed much heavier fat deposits and exhibited severe skeletal deformities and were prone to bone fractures. They were very nervous animals showing extreme irritability and often paced back and forth in their pens.
 
煉乳貓的牛奶不僅加熱還加了糖。這組貓的協調力和口腔狀況惡化明顯。身體累積許多脂肪,而且骨骼嚴重異常,極容易骨折。個性緊張、易怒,時常來回踱步。
 
Discussion
 
討論
 
Any newcomer to the topic of feline nutrition who has just encountered the Pottenger study should be aware that all of the above is a brief summary of the ten years of research on the effect of cooked food on the health of cats. This was remarkable research for its time, however, we have to keep in mind that this experiment was done 70 – 80 years ago and at that time it was unknown how specific nutrients affected the health of the cats. Now we know more, and taking advantage of technology and the updated information we have, we are able to point at certain flaws this study has.
 
貓科營養學新手在接觸到帕頓哲的研究時,要記住以上只是一個關於熟食對貓健康影響的十年期研究的簡短陳述。這在當時是很了不起的研究,然而別忘了這個實驗是在大約七、八十年前進行的,當時並不知道某些特定的養分對貓健康有何影響。現在我們知道更多,而且拜科技進步以及資料更新之賜,我們得以指出這個研究的某些缺失。
 
There were no good scientific controls. All of the cats were donated and Dr. Pottenger didn't know the thorough history of each one. Most of them were strays, which can lead to statistical errors. Concerning the food: the composition of the diet was not constant during the ten year period, because of its origin, it varied in freshness and quality.
 
這個研究沒有良好的科學控管。所有的貓都是贈與而來,帕頓哲醫生並不清楚每一隻貓的歷史。大部分是街貓,所以可能導致數據有誤。至於食物方面,在這十年中食物內容並非固定不變,而且來源不同,鮮度和品質也各有異。
 
This study was done many years before the role of taurine was very well understood. Lack of taurine can produce the same signs and degenerations noted in the experiment by Pottenger, who couldn't explain these deficiencies in terms of lack of this vital nutrient. Many of the problems the cats showed could be attributed to taurine deficiency.
 
這份研究完成於很久以前,那時候大家對牛磺酸的功用還不是很清楚。缺乏牛磺酸而導致的健康狀況,符合帕頓哲的實驗結果,當時他並不知道問題是因為缺乏這個重要養分。研究中許多貓的健康問題,可能是因為牛磺酸攝取不足。
 
The fact that the cooked diets in the experiment were deficient demonstrates that the cooking process affects the natural nutrients in the meat and hence it's biological value. For water-soluble nutrients such as taurine, simply removing the liquid content of the meat through cooking drastically reduces the meat's taurine content. In commercial cooked foods, dry and canned, these nutrients need to be artificially added back in. At this point we have to ask ourselves, why feed a diet where you have so altered the naturally occurring nutrients?
 
實驗顯示煮熟的食物養分不全這個事實,證明烹煮過程影響肉的天然養分,也就是肉的生物價值。就水溶性的養分而言,例如牛磺酸,烹煮過程水分逸出而被移除,大大減少肉的牛磺酸含量。商業熟食,不管是乾飼料還是罐頭,水溶性的養分都必須以人工方式額外補充。那麼試問,為什麼要餵貓吃天然養分已經改變的食物?
 
It's not the author's intention to debunk in any way this remarkable study, which was ahead of its time, but rather to emphasize Dr. Pottenger's great skill as a scientist because he knew or suspected that the symptoms he observed were those of a nutrient deficiency of some sort, even if he could not identify taurine at the time. And that is a quite an achievement.
 
撰寫此文的用意並不是要指出這個的研究的缺點,因為在當時這是一個很先進的實驗。此文的用意是要強調帕頓哲醫生具備了身為一個科學家的優秀特質,因為他知道或懷疑自己所觀察到的症狀,是養分不足或類似的原因造成,即使當時他並無法辯識牛磺酸。這個研究是一個了不起的成就。
 
(全文完)
 
譯者酒鬼酒後心聲:
從這個研究看來,八十年前人類還不知道牛磺酸是何物,當然也不知道它的功用。試問,八十年後的現在,人類已經完全的知道世界上所有的食物含有的各種不同的養分、微量元素、礦物質以及維他命等等,明確的知道其功能以及煮熟後會不會被破壞嗎?我不認為人類已經完全破解這個疑問,如果我錯了請指正。
 
因為不知道我們是否已經知道全部,所以如果我們把貓的食物煮熟,我們不知道會破壞什麼養分,以及破壞到什麼程度。那麼我們該怎麼餵貓?我們能做的是模擬貓會抓的獵物來餵貓,我們能做的是不要去把貓食煮熟破壞其中的養分,尤其是那些可能我們都還沒有發現的養分。把食物煮熟破壞養分後,再來補充營養品以取代被破壞的養分,你不覺得多此一舉嗎?乾飼料是如此,罐頭是如此,熟食也是如此。貓天生的食物就是生食,不要把人類熟食的框架套在貓食身上,不然被困住的不是你,而是你的貓。


 
謝大隻祝大家週末愉快
 
Note: Feline Nutrition provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. Feline Nutrition disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.
 
免責聲明:Feline Nutrition (貓科營養) 基於公共服務的精神提供貓科健康和營養訊息。診斷或治療的行為應該是由你的獸醫進行。本網站所提供的任何獸醫建議和資訊,Feline Nutrition 不負任何責任。
 
Dr. Guillermo Díaz studied veterinary medicine at the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Perú. He currently practices in Lima and also provides veterinary services to a large number of local rescue organizations.
 
本文作者獸醫基勒摩.迪亞茲(Dr. Guillermo Diza) 就讀位於秘魯利馬的 Universidad Mayor de San Marcos 獸醫系。他目前在利馬執業,同時提供許多當地的動物救援組織獸醫服務。
 
本文譯者謝凱特,譯有「你的貓」一書。畢業於東吳大學英文系。養貓二十六年,目前有十二隻貓。最大興趣除了養貓外是讀英文和研究貓生食。
 
註:
  1. FM Pottenger, Pottenger's Cats, A Study in Nutrition, 2nd ed. Price Pottenger Nutrition, June 1, 2012.
     
 
 
 
 


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