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September 22, 2017

雞蛋可以整顆生吃嗎?


Important Update on Eating Raw Eggs
雞蛋可以整顆生吃嗎?

原文發表日期:February 09, 2005 / 2005年2月9日
 
By Dr. Mercola
作者:人類骨科醫生梅克拉
 
原文出處連結:http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2005/02/09/raw-eggs.aspx

Notice: Important 2009 Raw Egg Update

注意:2009年生雞蛋重要更新
 
Since publishing this article in 2005, I have more carefully studied the issue of whether to consume WHOLE raw eggs or only egg yolks ... and my recommendation is to eat the WHOLE egg raw, as I originally advised in 2002.

自從在2005年發表本文以後,我更仔細的研究雞蛋是要整顆都生吃還是只吃生蛋黃...我的建議是整顆蛋都可以生吃,維持我最初在2002年提出的意見。
 
Avoiding raw egg yolks is the conventional nutritional dogma as raw egg whites contain a glycoprotein called avidin that is very effective at binding biotin, one of the B vitamins. The concern is that this can lead to a biotin deficiency. The simple solution is to cook the egg whites as this completely deactivates the avidin.

避吃生蛋黃是傳統的營養信條,因為生蛋白含有一種糖蛋白叫做抗生物素蛋白(avidin),會阻斷生物素(biotin一種維他命B)被吸收,導致生物素不足的疑慮。簡單的解決方式是把蛋白煮熟,讓抗生物素蛋白失去活性。

The problem is that this also completely deactivates nearly every other protein in the egg white. While you will still obtain nutritional benefits from consuming cooked egg whites, from a nutritional perspective it would seem far better to consume them uncooked.

問題是蛋白煮熟會讓其他幾乎所有蛋白質也完全失去活性。雖然吃熟蛋白還是可以得到好養分,但從營養觀點看來,吃生蛋白優點比較多。

Two groups brought me to back this: pet owners who feed their pets raw foods and Aajonus Vonderplanitz, who wrote the raw food book We Want to Live. Both feel quite strongly that raw eggs are just fine to eat.

我重新研究這個問題是因為兩組人,分別是餵寵物生食的飼主,以及生食書「我們要活下去」作者Aajonus Vonderplanitz。他們都認為雞蛋是可以生吃的。

After my recent studies it became clear that the egg's design carefully compensated for this issue.

最近我在進行一些研究後發現,雞蛋本身的設計其實將問題抵消了。

It put tons of biotin in the egg yolk. Egg yolks have one of the highest concentrations of biotin found in nature. So it is likely that you will not have a biotin deficiency if you consume the whole raw egg, yolk and white. It is also clear, however, that if you only consume raw egg whites, you are nearly guaranteed to develop a biotin deficiency unless you take a biotin supplement.

蛋黃有非常豐富的生物素。在自然界中,生物素含量濃度最高的其中一種食物是蛋黃。所以如果你是吃下整顆的生雞蛋,也就是蛋黃和蛋白,生物素不足的狀況不可能會發生。不過,如果你只吃生蛋白,極有可能會出現生物素不足的狀況,如果你沒有額外補充生物素營養品。

So to be clear, my advice is that you can safely eat WHOLE raw eggs, from a healthy fresh source. Personally I eat four whole raw eggs each morning with my breakfast.

所以我的建議是吃整顆生雞蛋是安全的,但必須是安全的雞蛋。我自己每天早餐都吃四顆生雞蛋。

Eggs are Loaded with Antioxidants

雞蛋含有豐富的抗氧化物

Eggs contain high quality proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. And, according to new research, you can also add antioxidant properties to the list. The antioxidant properties are due to the presence of two amino acids, tryptophanand tyrosine. Two raw egg yolks contain nearly twice the antioxidant properties of an apple. Egg yolks are also rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, a class of carotenoids that offer powerful protection from age-related macular degeneration, the most common cause of blindness.

雞蛋含有優質的蛋白質、脂肪、維他命和礦物質。而且根據新的研究顯示,雞蛋還含有抗氧化物,因為雞蛋有兩種氨基酸,即色氨酸和酪氨酸。兩個生蛋黃的抗氧化物含量幾乎是一顆蘋果的兩倍。蛋黃還含有豐富的葉黃素和玉米黃素(玉米黃質),是一種類胡蘿蔔素,可以預防老年性黃斑部病變,那是造成失明最常見的病因。

Research illustrates how nutritionally destructive cooking is to eggs. The antioxidant properties in eggs are reduced by about 50 percent when eggs are fried or boiled, followed by microwaving, which results in an even greater reduction.

研究顯示烹煮對雞蛋的養分造成很大的破壞。煎蛋或水煮蛋,會減少大約百分之五十的抗氧化物,把煎蛋或水煮蛋拿去微波加熱會造成更多的抗氧化物流失。

If the texture of raw egg is a challenge for you, it is easy to put them in a smoothie which typically solves the texture issue.  If that still doesn't work, the next best approach are poached or lightly soft boiled eggs. Scrambling your eggs is one of the worst ways to cook them as it oxidizes the cholesterol in the egg yolk, which may in fact harm your health. So, consuming your eggs raw will optimize their nutritional benefits. If you choose to eat your eggs cooked, poached or soft-boiled are your best options. 

如果你不喜歡生蛋的口感,可以把生雞蛋放在優格果汁中一起吃下去,可以解決口感不佳的問題。如果加入優格果汁中還是不喜歡,最好的方式是水煮蛋,只要稍微煮一下就好。炒蛋是最糟的煮蛋方式,因為蛋黃中的膽固醇被氧化,可能有害健康。吃生蛋才能獲得最多養分。如果你選擇吃煮過的蛋,把蛋稍微水煮一下是最好的作法。
 
譯註:
優格果汁就是把優格和水果打均勻變成飲料,英文叫smoothie。

Not All Eggs are Created Equal

雞蛋有好有壞

Free-range or "pastured" organic eggs are far superior when it comes to nutrient content. An egg is considered organic if the chicken was fed only organic food, which means it will not have accumulated high levels of pesticides from the grains (mostly genetically engineered corn) fed to typical chickens. But this alone is not enough.

就養分而言,自由放牧或是有草地可吃的有機蛋品質好很多。吃有機食物的雞下的蛋才是有機蛋,因為雞體內沒有累積高含量的來自穀物(大多是基改玉米)的殺蟲劑,基改穀物飼料是典型的雞飼料。但光是這一點還不夠。

The dramatically superior nutrient levels are most likely the result of the differences in diet between free ranging, pastured hens and commercially farmed hens. Testing has confirmed that true free-range eggs are far more nutritious than commercially raised eggs. In a 2007 egg-testing project, Mother Earth News1 compared the official U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient data for commercial eggs with eggs from hens raised on pasture and found that the latter typically contains:

自由放牧雞蛋、草地雞蛋和一般商業雞蛋的養分差異很大,應該是因為吃不同食物的關係。測驗顯示自由放牧雞蛋遠比商業雞蛋營養。2007年有一個雞蛋檢驗,以美國農業部的商業雞蛋養分為基準,去比較有草地可吃的雞的蛋,發現後者含有以下比較高的養分
  • 66 percent more vitamin A
  • 2 times more omega-3 fatty acids
  • 3 times more vitamin E
  • 7 times more beta carotene
 
  • 維他命A含量高出66%
  • Omega-3 脂肪酸高出兩倍
  • 維他命E高三倍
  • Beta胡蘿蔔素高七倍

What about the Risk of Salmonella

會有感染到沙門氏菌的風險嗎?

The CDC and other public health organizations advise you to thoroughly cook your eggs to lower your risk of salmonella, but as long as they're pastured and organic, eating your eggs raw is completely safe.

疾病控制中心和其他公共健康組織,建議把蛋完全煮熟再吃,以降低感染到沙門氏菌的風險,但只要你買的是有機的草地雞蛋,吃生蛋是完全安全的。

The salmonella risk is increased when hens are raised in unsanitary conditions, which is extremely rare for small organic farms where the chickens are raised in clean, spacious coops, have access to sunlight, and forage for their natural food. Conventional eggs, making up the vast majority of eggs in typical grocery stores, have an increased risk for salmonella, which is why I advise against eating conventional eggs raw. One study by the British government found that 23 percent of farms with caged hens tested positive for salmonella, compared to just over 4 percent in organic flocks and 6.5 percent in free-range flocks.

不衛生的飼養環境提高沙門氏菌的風險,小型的有機農場感染沙門氏菌的風險很低,因為雞舍乾淨寬敞,雞可以曬到太陽,而且有天然的植物可以吃。一般商店或超市主要是賣傳統雞蛋,沙門氏菌風險較高,這就是為什麼我反對生吃這一類的雞蛋。有一個英國政府的研究顯示,被關起來的雞下的蛋,感染到沙門氏菌的機率是23%,而有機雞蛋的機率是4%多,自由放牧的雞蛋則是6.5%。

Should You Refrigerate Your Eggs?

雞蛋要冷藏嗎?

Contrary to popular belief, fresh pastured eggs that have an intact cuticle do not require refrigeration, as long as you are going to consume them within a relatively short period of time. This is well known in many other countries, including parts of Europe, and many organic farmers will not refrigerate their eggs.

有別於一般大眾的想法,自然新鮮的有機或放牧蛋,如果外殼完整是不需要冷藏的,但是要在幾天內把蛋吃完。這是很多國家已經知道的作法,包括歐洲某些部份,而且許多有機農夫不會把蛋冰起來。

In the U.S., refrigeration of eggs became the cultural norm when mass production caused eggs to travel long distances and sit in storage for weeks to months before arriving at your local supermarket. Additionally, the general lack of cleanliness of factory farms increases the likelihood that your eggs have come into contact with pathogens, amplifying the need for both disinfection and refrigeration.

美國人習慣把蛋冰起來,因為大量製造的雞蛋往往需要長途運送,當雞蛋送達你家附近的超市時,其實已經被貯存數天或甚至數週。此外,大量製造雞蛋的工廠通常環境不甚衛生,提高雞蛋接觸到病原體的機率,消毒和冷藏的必要性因而增加。

So, if your eggs are fresh from the organic farm, with intact cuticles, and will be consumed within a few days, you can simply leave them on the counter or in a cool cupboard. The shelf life for an unrefrigerated egg is around 7 to 10 days. When refrigerated, they'll stay fresh for 30-45 days. Keep this in mind when purchasing eggs from your grocery store, as by the time they hit the shelf, they may already be three weeks old, or older. USDA certified eggs have a pack date and a sell-by date on the carton, so check the label.

所以如果你買的是新鮮的有機蛋,外殼完整,而且幾天內就會吃完,可以不用冰。沒有冰的雞蛋可以放七到十天。冷藏雞蛋的保鮮期是30到45天。別忘了,當你買的是一般商店或超市的雞蛋時,雞蛋可能已經放在架上三週或更久。符合美國農業部要求的雞蛋包裝,會印上包裝日期以及到期日,所以要記得閱讀包裝。

Where to Find Clean, Fresh Eggs

新鮮衛生的雞蛋何處尋?

It is important to know where your food comes from. The key here is to buy your eggs locally. Locating high quality organic eggs locally is FAR easier than finding raw milk as virtually every rural area has individuals with chickens. If you live in an urban area, visiting the local health food stores is typically the quickest route to finding high quality local egg sources.

知道你的食物來源是很重要的。關鍵是買本地的雞蛋。要找到品質好的有機蛋遠比找到生乳容易,因為郊區有許多個人養雞場。如果你是住在都市,住家附近的有機商店往往有賣一些好蛋。

Farmers markets are another great way to meet the people who produce your food. With face-to-face contact, you can get your questions answered and know exactly what you're buying.

農夫市集也是另一個買到好雞蛋的地方。你有機會跟蛋農面對面的交談,確切的知道自己買了什麼蛋。
 
譯者酒鬼的雞蛋經驗談&一路raw到底:
以前我是一個對食物很無知的人,四十多歲才知道有籠子雞這回事。當我知道雞被如此不人道的對待時,幾乎不再吃來源不明的雞蛋。自製貓食後我認真的注意雞蛋供應源,發現人道飼養的蛋農台灣也有好幾家。有一次我煮了一顆水煮蛋來吃,想說我的貓都吃這麼好的蛋,我當然也要吃吃看。沒想到人道飼養的水煮蛋有著美妙無比的蛋香,吃的時候覺得好幸福。當我第一次吃時心中有一個疑惑:為什麼我以前都沒注意到蛋香是如此美妙?有一次我興沖沖的跑去圓山市集買人道有機蛋,但那天市集沒有營業,我只好失望的去旁邊一家店買了一盒「號稱」土雞蛋。我一樣拿來煮水煮蛋,奇妙的是竟然一點蛋香都沒有。怎麼會這樣?到現在那盒土雞蛋還有兩顆躺在我的冰箱裏,因為很難吃所以不想吃。而如果不是吃過90分的美妙好吃蛋,我根本不知道那盒土雞蛋只有50分。
 
我想要跟反對生食,當然沒有餵過貓生食的人說:如果你的貓沒有吃過90分的生食,你不會知道乾飼料只有50分。(我的專長是說歪理XD)
 
在看過一些雞蛋的文章後,當然包括這一篇,我現在都餵貓吃生雞蛋,做貓食時少一道煮蛋的程序,一路raw到底,工作效率更高了!
 
 
 
以前喜歡逛百貨公司,現在喜歡逛市集
以前買新衣服很開心,現在買很多肉塞爆冷凍櫃很開心
 
臉臭臭腿短短的謝小丸子祝大家週末愉快
 
 


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