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September 8, 2017

生肉:獸醫可能強烈攻擊的健康「寵物食物」


Raw Meat: The Completely Healthy 'Pet' Diet Your Vet Probably Vilifies
生肉:獸醫可能強烈攻擊的健康「寵物食物」
 
By Dr. Karen Baker
作者:獸醫凱倫.貝克
 
原文發表日期:February 15, 2011 
 
原文連結:http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2011/02/15/raw-meat-the-best-and-healthiest-diet-for-pet-cats-and-dogs.aspx?utm_source=facebook.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_content=facebookpets_ogc&utm_campaign=20170825_raw-meat-the-best-and-healthiest-diet-for-pet-cats-and-dogs
 
Today I'd like to discuss the reason why dogs and cats can, and should, eat raw meat.

今天我想要討論的是為什麼狗和貓可以也應該吃生肉。

This is one of the most frequent conversations I have with startled visitors to my home who say, 'My gosh! You feed your pets raw meat?' … as well as clients at my Natural Pet animal clinic who already feed or would like to feed their pets raw, but are getting an argument from their own veterinarians about raw food diets for dogs and cats.

來我家的客人常常一臉驚恐的說:「我的天啊,你餵你的寵物吃生肉?」來我的診所的已經或打算餵寵物吃生肉的飼主也常遇到這種狀況,而且他們和獸醫之間為了該不該餵狗貓吃生肉而爭論不休。

The whole debate about raw food doesn't make a lot of sense to me. Dogs and cats have consumed living, raw meats for thousands of years.

這場生肉之爭在我看來毫無意義。幾千年來貓狗的食物一直都是活生生的肉。

To this day barn cats catch and kill mice, and no one calls poison control. Farmers also don't call poison control when their dog finds a litter of baby bunnies and pops them in their mouth like little Tootsie Rolls. In these cases, no one thinks to induce vomiting or say, 'Oh my gosh! My pet just ate raw meat!'

即便是現在,穀倉貓捕捉獵殺老鼠時,沒有人會打電話通報毒物控制中心。當農人的狗吃下幼兔時,他們也不會打電話去毒物控制中心。沒有人會去幫吃下老鼠或兔子的貓狗催吐,或是說,「喔我的天啊,我的寵物剛吃了生肉!」

The truth is both cats and dogs are designed specifically to consume raw meat. Their bodies are adapted to process raw, living foods.

事實上貓和狗的身體是為了消化生肉而設計,當然是適合處理生肉的。

Fast Food is Bad for Pets, Too

速食對寵物也是很糟的

The first bags of commercial pet food entered the market about a hundred years ago. From a historical perspective, processed dog and cat food is a relatively new phenomenon.

第一袋商業寵物食品大約在一百年前問市。從歷史觀點來看,加工狗貓食品是一個相當新的現象。

However, your pet's GI tract has not evolved in those hundred years to make good use of an entirely kibble-based diet – and it never will.

然而,你的寵物的腸胃道在過去一百年來並沒有跟著進化,以便於良好吸收乾飼料為主的食品,未來也不會有如此的進化。

Fortunately, the bodies of dogs and cats are amazingly resilient and therefore capable of handling foods that aren't biologically appropriate, like most dry pet foods. Unfortunately, this adaptability has led to a situation of 'dietary abuse' among the veterinary community.

還好貓狗的身體調適能力極佳,可以應付那些不是他們天生該吃的食品,例如乾飼料。但很不幸的是,這個調適能力也帶領他們進入一個「飲食失調」的狀況。

譯者酒鬼話很多:
不止一次聽到獸醫說貓有消化碳水化合物的能力,所以可吃碳水含量很高的乾飼料為主食。依此類推,我們台灣人的胃也有消化鹽酥雞的能力,所以我們也可以吃鹽酥雞為主食嗎?我們現在說的是主食,不是點心。我們也有消化泡麵的能力,所以也可吃泡麵為主食?是這樣子的概念嗎?重點不在於有沒有消化這種食物/食品的能力,重點在於應該吃下身體真正需要的優質養分。如果獸醫說貓有消化碳水的能力,吃碳水高的主食對身體無害,然後你很認真的相信這位獸醫所言,那表示你已經被專業綁架,沒有獨立思考的能力,麻煩去面壁思過一下。

Commercial pet foods – especially dry bagged foods – are so convenient the majority of vets recommend them to all their patients. Processed dog and cat food is convenient, inexpensive, and there's no preparation or cleanup required. You stash the bag in the pantry, scoop out a portion at meal time, drop it into your pet's food dish and you're done.

商業寵物食品,尤其是乾飼料,是如此的方便,絕大多數的獸醫都推薦給飼主。加工處理過的貓狗食品方便又不貴,不需事先備食或事後清洗。你只要買一包乾飼料放在家中,拿出來倒在寵物碗中,餵食工作便已完成。

Because commercial pet food has been so successfully marketed (dog and cat food products are a multimillion dollar industry, after all), and because pets' bodies are resilient and can survive, if not thrive on the stuff, we have been lulled into a sense of complacency about the food we feed our precious four-legged companions.

因為商業寵物食品的行銷是如此的成功(畢竟貓狗食品在美國是一個價值好幾百萬美金的行業),也因為寵物具有適應力可以吃飼料為主食而存活,也許無法健健又壯壯,所以我們不知不覺的進入一個自我滿足的狀態,自認為選對了正確的毛小孩食品。

譯者酒鬼貼心提醒:
我要提醒那些口口聲聲說我的貓吃了十幾年的乾飼料也沒事的主人,在蓋棺定論之前,說吃乾飼料沒事言之過早。當你的貓吃乾飼料吃到生病時,有很多病並不是改吃正確的食物就可以痊癒的,例如慢性腎衰竭,因為傷害已經造成,再好的食物也無法彌補傷害,這時候再來後悔沒有抛棄乾飼料也換不回你的貓的健康。所以,再一次貼心提醒你,在蓋棺定論之前,先不要鐵齒的說你的貓吃了十幾年乾飼料都沒事。

Most veterinary students don't learn about species-appropriate pet diets in vet school. The only food discussed is processed, commercial pet formulas.

大部份的獸醫系學生在獸醫學院就讀時,並沒有學習到什麼叫做適合物種的寵物食物。在學校唯一被討論的食物是加工處理過的商業寵物食品。

The concept of feeding a living food diet is foreign to many vets. If a client mentions he feeds raw, the vet will ask, 'Why don't you just feed your cat regular cat food, for crying out loud? Why do you need to make food? Why do you need to feed living foods?'

對許多獸醫來說,餵生肉是一個陌生的概念。如果一個飼主提到他餵生肉,獸醫會問他,「為什麼不餵你的貓或狗吃一般的食物就好?為什麼要自製?為什麼要餵生肉?」

譯者補充:
這篇文章雖然發表於六年前,但到目前為止,根據我在四個不同國外生食討論區所看到的討論,大部份的美國獸醫還是不接受生肉的。美國很多餵生肉的貓狗主人跟我們一樣有找不到認同生肉的獸醫的困擾。當九成以上的人反對一個簡單而正確的事實時,這是一個非常可悲的世界。

It doesn't take much research to uncover the fact that dogs and cats are designed by nature to eat living foods – unprocessed, raw, nourishing foods. Feeding a commercial formula is a bit like deciding your child can be healthy on an exclusive diet of meal replacement bars. No real food, just meal replacement bars.

不需要去做什麼了不起的研究,就可以知道貓狗天生的食物是未經加工的、營養的生肉這個事實。餵商業食品就好比決定人類小孩的身體健康只要依靠代餐棒這種食物就可達成。不需要吃什麼真正的食品,只要代餐棒就夠了。

譯者酒鬼話很多:
每一個獸醫都知道幾千年來貓的天生獵物是老鼠兔子小鳥等等,絕大多數的獸醫卻都認為貓要以乾飼料為主食,但是貓的天生獵物的營養成分和乾飼料的養分差異非常非常非常的巨大。那麼,為什麼沒有人看出這之間的矛盾?每一個獸醫都知道吃食物時,要吃越接近食物的原形越好,但絕大多數的獸醫卻認為過度加工到完全看不到食物原形的乾飼料才是最好的食品。請問,為什麼沒有人看出這之間的矛盾?

A meal replacement bar is fine now and then, but no sane parent would ever consider raising a child on just those alone. Yet that's what we're doing when we feed our pets nothing but commercial, processed foods.

代餐棒偶而吃吃並無大礙,但是理智的家長不會只餵小孩吃代餐棒。當我們只餵寵物吃加工商業食品時,我們等於讓小孩以代餐棒為主食。

Living foods in your pet's diet are necessary for successful overall immune and organ function.

想要擁有健康的免疫和器官功能,生肉是不可或缺的。

Eliminating Parasites

避免寄生蟲

It seems the biggest problem most people have with a raw meat diet revolves around parasites.

對多數人來說,餵生肉的最大疑慮是生肉中的寄生蟲問題。

Parasites – roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms– are passed up the food chain and wind up in the guts of animals.

寄生蟲-蛔蟲、鉤蟲、絛蟲-穿過食物鏈後來到動物的腸道之中。

We don't feed guts to our pets! If you buy a commercially available raw food diet, you will not find guts in the formula because guts contain parasites.

但是我們並不會餵貓狗吃腸道。如果你買的是商業生肉,你不會在食材列表中看到腸子,因為腸道內有寄生蟲。

If you prepare a homemade raw diet for your dog or cat, you don't include guts. Do not feed the stomach and small and large intestines. Those are the parts of the prey we get rid of, because those are the parts that harbor parasites.

如果你是自製貓狗生食,你不會把腸子拿來當食材。不要餵胃、小腸和大腸。那些都是我們不要使用的部位,因為是寄生蟲寄居的地方。

譯者PS
也對,我看過的貓生食食譜,或是模擬獵物餵食法使用的食材,都沒有胃和大小腸。

Muscle meat – the part of the prey used to prepare raw food diets – is sterile except in rare instances when parasites escape the GI tract (guts) and travel there.

肌肉-我們拿來做生肉的食材-沒有寄生蟲,只有在少數的例子中,寄生蟲會離開腸道來到肉之中。

Certain parasites, like toxoplasmosis, that get into muscle meat can make your pet sick, which is why you should freeze raw meats for three days before feeding them to your dog or cat.

某些寄生蟲,例如弓漿蟲,會進入肌肉讓寵物生病,所以生肉在餵食之前必需先冷凍三天。

By freezing meats three days before serving (a lot like how sushi is handled), and by removing the guts of prey species, you can successfully avoid exposing your raw fed pet to parasites.

生肉在餵食之前先冷凍三天(很像生魚片的處理方式),以及不要餵腸胃道,你可以成功的避免寵物吃到寄生蟲。

譯者酒鬼補充:
我有聽過一個說法是如果你買的是常溫的肉,放入冰箱冷凍庫後要幾個小時後肉才會完全冷凍,所以冷凍三天應該要從肉完全呈現冷凍狀態時算起,保險起見冷凍四天比較好。如果是野生的動物或是魚,我看到的建議是冷凍三週以上。

Salmonella and Your Pet

沙門氏菌和你的寵物

The second most frequently asked question I get about raw meat diets is, 'What about salmonella?'

關於生肉我最常被問到的第二個問題是,「那沙門氏菌呢?」

The most important thing to understand about salmonella or any other potentially pathogenic bacteria 病菌is that contamination absolutely does occur. It's a fact of life.

關於沙門氏菌以及其他可能的病菌,我們首先要瞭解的重點是如此的污染的確有可能會發生。這是存在生活中的事實。

Salmonella is the reason for most recalls of dry pet foods (and human foods as well). When a salmonella outbreak occurs, there has been contamination in the food chain.

很多乾飼料被召回的理由是受到沙門氏菌的污染(人食也是)。當沙門氏菌事件發生時,表示食物鏈已經受到污染。

The word Salmonella is used to describe over 1,800 serovars (species) of gram-negative bacteria. This bacteria lives in many species of mammals. The most common bacteria riding around in your dog or cat is Salmonella typhimurium.

一千八百種以上的革蘭氏陰性菌都被稱為沙門氏菌。這種細菌寄居在許多哺乳動物體內。貓狗體內最見的是傷寒沙門氏菌。

I want to quote from an article titled Campylobacter and Salmonella-Associated Diarrhea in Dogs and Cats: When Do I Treat? It was written by Stanley L. Marks, BVSc, PhD, DACVIM (Internal Medicine, Oncology), DACVN, Davis, CA, for the Veterinary Information Network (VIN):

以下引用一篇名為「貓狗體內曲狀桿菌以及和沙門氏菌有關的腹瀉:適當治療時機?」文章,作者是獸醫史丹利.馬克斯(Stanley L. Marks專長內科和腫瘤科):

"The clinical significance of bacteria such as clostridiumand salmonella causing diarrhea or illness in dogs and cats is clouded by the existence of many of these organisms as normal constituents of the indigenous intestinal flora. The primary enteropathogenic bacteria most commonly incriminating in canine and feline diarrhea is Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, and Salmonella.

「臨床上細菌的重點,例如梭菌屬以及造成貓狗腹瀉的沙門氏菌,常被掩蓋住,因為許多這類的有機體是正常的腸道菌叢構成部分。最常造成貓狗腸道問題的細菌是產氣莢膜梭菌、難治梭狀芽胞桿菌、曲狀桿菌和沙門氏菌。

Veterinarians are faced with a quandary when attempting to diagnose small animals with suspected bacterial-associated diarrhea because the isolation rates of these pathogenic bacteria are similar in diarrheic and non-diarrheic animals, and because the incidence of bacterial-associated diarrhea is extremely variable.  Salmonella species are commonly isolated from both healthy and hospitalized dogs and cats."

在診斷小動物疑似與細菌有關的腹瀉時,獸醫面對一個難題,因為在有腹瀉和沒有腹瀉的動物身上,這些病原菌的存在率是類似的,而且也因為和細菌有關的腹瀉發生機率是極為多變的。沙門氏菌普遍存在健康和住院的貓狗之中。」

What this is saying, in a nutshell, is dogs and cats naturally have some Salmonella in their GI tracts much of the time – it's not some unknown foreign invader but rather one their bodies are familiar with.

以上兩段換成白話文的意思是,多數時候貓狗腸道有沙門氏菌是正常的,這種菌不是某種不知名的侵入者,是他們身體本身已經熟悉的細菌。

If you're familiar with reptiles, the situations are similar. Reptiles are known to naturally harbor Salmonella in their GI tracts.

如果你跟爬蟲類很熟,你會知道狀況是類似的。沙門氏菌自然的存在爬蟲類腸道之中是已知的事實。

In an article written by Rhea V. Morgan DVM, DACVIM, DACVO for the VIN, the doctor asserts the following about illness resulting from salmonella:

以下是一段獸醫 Rhea V. Morgan寫的文字,陳述沙門氏菌之所以造成疾病:

"Factors that increase the likelihood of clinical disease from Salmonella include the age of the animal, poor nutrition, the presence of cancer or neoplasia, and other concurrent diseases and stress, as well as the administration of antibiotics, chemotherapy or glucocorticoids [which are steroids]."

「沙門氏菌會提高罹病率和一些因素有關,包括動物的年紀、營養不良、有癌症或腫瘤,以及其他同時存在的疾病和壓力,還有抗生素的使用、化療或是使用類固醇。」

The bottom line is potentially harmful bacteria reside in your pet's GI tract whether you feed raw foods or the processed stuff. In other words, your pet is already 'contaminated' with Salmonella.

所以基本重點是,不管你是餵生肉還是加工食品,對身體可能有害的細菌都住在你的寵物的腸胃道中。換句話說,你的寵物已經被沙門氏菌「污染」。

Dogs and cats are built to handle bacterial loads from food that would cause significant illness in you or me. Your pet's body is well equipped to deal with heavy doses of familiar and strange bacteria because nature built him to catch, kill and immediately consume his prey.

貓狗天生可以處理食物中的細菌,儘管這些相同的細菌可能造成你我生病。你的寵物的身體,天生具備處理熟悉或陌生細菌的能力,因為他們身體天生的構造就是為了捕捉、獵殺以及立刻吃下獵物而設計。

Your dog's or cat's stomach is highly acidic, with a pH range of 1-2.5. Nothing much can survive that acidic environment – it exists to keep your pet safe from potentially contaminated raw meat and other consumables.

貓狗的胃部極酸,酸鹼值介於1-2.5之間。在如此的酸度之中,沒有什麼東西可以存活。如此的酸度是為了保護貓狗安全,萬一他們吃下受污染的肉或是其他食物時。

譯者酒鬼話很多:
乾飼料碳水含量往往高達百分之三十以上,因為含有許多植物,所以吃乾飼料為主食的貓胃部酸鹼值介於4-5之間(數字越低越酸),而不是全肉食貓的1-2.5之間。換句話說吃乾飼料的貓的胃酸,殺死細菌的能力低於吃全肉食的貓。另外,除非你買的是真空包裝,否則乾飼料一旦包裝完成就開始和空氣中的細菌接觸。而不管是不是真空包裝,當你打開乾飼料包裝後,要好幾天或甚至幾週才會吃完這一包乾飼料,繼續和空氣中的細菌接觸。貓去吃了幾口乾飼料離開去睡覺或玩耍,沾到貓口水的乾飼料繼續生出更多細菌。為什麼餵乾飼料的人都不擔心細菌問題?我的全生食貓都是五分鐘內吃完立刻收碗,啃生骨頭的最多十分鐘吃完,根據酒鬼淺見:吃乾飼料的貓才更需要擔心細菌問題。

In addition to the acid, dogs and cats also naturally produce a tremendous amount of bile. Bile is both anti-parasitic and anti-pathogenic. So if something potentially harmful isn't entirely neutralized by stomach acid, the bile is a secondary defense. And your pet's powerful pancreatic enzymes also help break down and digest food.

除了胃酸之外,貓狗天生製造大量的膽汁。膽汁可以對抗寄生蟲和病菌。如果某種有害物沒有被胃酸消滅,膽汁變成第二道防線。貓狗體內的胰臟酵素也可以幫助分解和消化食物。

Keeping Your Pet's GI Tract in Good Shape

維持寵物良好的腸胃道狀態

To help your pet's digestive system remain strong and resilient enough to handle a heavy bacterial load and to support overall immune function, there are several things you can do.

有許多方式可以幫助維持強壯的消化系統、提高面對大量細菌能力、加強免疫功能。
  • Number one, minimize stress by feeding a species-appropriate diet, the kind your dog or cat is meant to eat. It's important to feed vegetarian food to vegetarian animals, and meat-based food to your carnivorous dog or cat.
  • Minimize the drugs your pet takes, such as antibiotics. Reseed the gut during and after antibiotic therapy with a probiotic. It's also a good idea to maintain your dog or cat on a daily probiotic to balance the ratio of good to bad bacteria (gut flora).
  • A good-quality digestive enzyme will help promote your dog's or cat's body to get the most out of the food you feed.
  • 第一個方式是藉由餵適合物種的食物,把壓力減到最低。草食動物要吃草,肉食動物要吃肉,這點基本認知是很重要的。
  • 把動物用藥減到最低,例如抗生素。在抗生素療程之中以及之後,用益生菌重整腸道。每天在貓狗食物中補充益生菌也是一個很好的作法,可以平衡好菌與壞菌的比例。
  • 品質好的消化酵素可以幫助動物從食物中獲得最大的營養。
Providing your favorite pooch or feline with a balanced, biologically sound diet, a healthy lifestyle, digestive enzymes and probiotics, will nourish your pet, support healthy immunologic function, and bring overall vibrancy to her body.

餵你的貓狗吃均衡的、適合生理需要的食物、健康的生活型態、消化酵素和益生菌,會給你的寵物帶來養分、加強健康的免疫系統,以及無限活力。

This is in direct contrast to feeding a commercial formula of highly processed rendered byproducts, chemicals and grains – the typical mainstream pet food sold today. The sooner you transition your dog or cat to the kind of diet she was designed to eat, the sooner she will be on her way to vibrant good health.

這和餵商業食品的效果完全不同,商業食品充滿過度加工的副產品、化學物和穀物,今日典型的主流寵物食品。越早讓你的貓狗改吃他們天生該吃的食物,他們就會越早通向活力滿分之路。
 
(全完文)
 
這篇文章今年八月再次在貝克醫師的臉書頁貼出後,有許多人寫了回應,以下摘錄其中兩則。
 
Science Diet pays veterinarians tuition for selling their food in their practice. The only vets I know that don't sell Science Diet or other "prescription" foods are the ones that have been in practice a very long time, no longer have student debt and can be "independent". I used to work in vets offices, they make a 100% mark-up on the food. The food is their cash cow!
 
回應之一:
希爾斯幫獸醫付學費,因為獸醫在診所中賣他們的產品。我認識唯一不賣希爾斯產品或其他處方食品的獸醫,都是已經執業很長一段時間的醫生,不再需要付學生貸款,可以完全獨立。我以前在獸醫診所上班,所以知道他們賣寵物食品的利潤是百分之百。寵物食品是他們的金庫。
 
回應之二(因為很長,所以只翻譯字下線部分):
The greatest way we are going to get our vets to open their eyes to the reality of feeding raw is to learn how and, more importantly, why to do it. To learn enough to confidently challenge our fur babies vets when they say that feeding raw will kill them. I did it. It's not easy nor is it quick but I learned enough to shut my "boys" vet down with, amongst other things, the simple statement that they're my pets and I'm going to feed them what I think is best for them. I also learned what every single ingredient in a can of food or bag of kibble was and was able to show my vet the dangerous ingredients in manufactured food. My sources of information were Dr. Becker's Youtube videos, the book YOUR CAT, SIMPLE NEW SECRETS TO A LONGER, STRONGER LIFE by Dr. E. Hodgkins D.V.M., Esq. and Natural Nutrition For Cats by Ms. Kymythy Schultz C.N, C.N.C. Remember this - what, if anything, vets know about nutrition is taught by representatives of the pet food manufacturing companies - can you say biased, conflict of interest. Lastly, "prescrption" food is either given to vets or is heavily subsidised. The amount of money vets make from "prescription" food is enormous - not to mention the vet bills resulting from feeding species inappropriate food. Enjoy our journey of learniing - your pet will love you for it - your vet won't. OCAAT!!
 
...我的(貓)知識來源包括貝克醫生的YouTube影片、「你的貓」一書,還有獸醫Kymythy Schulz寫的「Natural Nutrition for Cats」一書...獸醫在學校學習營養學知識,但教課的人是寵物食品公司的員工...
 
譯者酒鬼話很多:
台灣也是如此,國立大學的獸醫系使用的小動物營養學課本是希爾斯編的,教課的人是希爾斯亞太區的經理還是協理之類的。
 
貓的食物邏輯很簡單,就是80/10/10,也就是80%的肉 + 10%的骨頭 + 10%的肝臟,還要提供三種以上不同的肉類餵食,就是營養均衡的食物,如此而已。對,就是這麼簡單,不要懷疑。我翻譯的皮爾森食譜、貓科營養食譜、Anne改版食譜以及我加入的國外四個餵貓狗生食的網站都是根據80/10/10這個基本又簡單的原則,就只有如此而已。
 
這麼簡單的邏輯,不需要獸醫或營養師來告訴你貓該吃什麼。這麼簡單的邏輯,現在卻被搞得如此複雜,全歸功於寵物食品公司從獸醫在學校的教育下手,成功洗腦絕大多數的獸醫,不管是在台灣還是美國,都是一樣的運作模式。寫生食文章六年,遇到支持生食的獸醫少之又少,所以餵貓吃生食的大家,我要給你們一個很誠懇的建議,就是有空三不五時去拜一下虎爺XD,保佑貓不要生病,因為支持生食的獸醫真的太少了。
 

三花女生貓謝亭亭祝大家週末愉快
 


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