首頁 »
May 19, 2017

貓生肉餐食譜之必要


Falling Off the Recipe Cliff
貓生肉餐食譜之必要
 
Last Updated on Sunday, July 03, 2016 05:43 PM
Published on Saturday, September 13, 2014 04:45 PM
Written by Margaret Gates
 
最近更新:2016年7月3日
原始刊出日:2014年9月13日
作者:瑪格麗特.蓋茲(貓科營養網站創辦人)
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/the-blogs/falling-off-the-recipe-cliff
 

If you're making homemade raw food for your cats, you are following a recipe. At least, I sincerely hope you are. Not following one can be disastrous for your cat. Recipes matter. You really can't just feed whatever you want. We don't recommend trying to formulate one from scratch. Don't get me wrong, I'm not saying this is rocket science. Part of our whole message is that you don't have to have an advanced degree in nutrition to feed your cat properly. That's the argument that big pet food tries to use to discredit homemade raw diets. They say it shouldn't be left to amateurs. By that logic, no mother should be allowed to take her infant home from the hospital. She isn't qualified to feed it.
 
如果你有在自製貓生食,你是有照著食譜去做的。至少我真心希望你是如此。沒有遵照食譜做的貓食,可能會給你的貓帶來災難。食譜很重要。你不能想餵什麼就餵什麼。我們不建議貓飼主自創食譜。但是請不要誤會,覺得這是什麼困難的太空科學。我們貓科營養網站所要傳遞的部分訊息是,貓主人並不需要獲得什麼了不起的營養學學位,才能夠知道如何適當的餵養他們的貓。那是寵物食品公司用來抨擊自製貓食的說詞。他們認為不應該讓業餘者自製貓食。那麼根據他們的邏輯,所有的醫院都不應該允許新生兒被媽媽帶回家,因為媽媽是資格不夠的業餘者。
 
Feeding your cat a balanced homemade diet really isn't that hard, but you can't just wing it all on your own. You need to follow an established recipe from a trusted source. The recipe we have on the site has been used for many years, with thousands of cats. Not everything is known about what cats need – something big pet food won't tell you. The major nutrients are pretty well established, at least the minimums and sometimes the maximums necessary. But even these are not hard, exact numbers; you just need to get in the range. By using a trusted recipe, you follow in the footsteps of others who have done the harder work.
 
餵貓吃營養均衡的自製貓食並不是那麼困難,但也不能自己想怎麼餵就怎麼餵。你需要遵循已經行之有年的食譜,而且是可靠來源提供的食譜。貓科營養的食譜已經被使用許多年,數千甚至數萬隻的貓吃過的食譜。貓所需要的一切,或許尚未被全盤瞭解,但是我們已經知道貓需要那些主要營養素,至少知道最低值是多少,或是必要的最高值。這些並不是困難的、確切的數字,而是一個範圍值。使用一份值得信任的食譜,你等於是踩著前人努力過的步伐前進。
 
We do recommend though, that you try other established recipes from time to time. Why? Because no one knows everything and maybe a different recipe covers something no one realizes is important or even just a good idea. As with the kinds of meat you feed, variety helps cover all the bases and ensures that nutrition is as good as we can get it. Choose your recipes carefully, not every recipe you might find on the internet is great. I have seen cat food recipes that call for rice, potatoes or peas. Things I would never feed to a cat.
 
不過我們建議你輪流交換使用不同的食譜。為什麼?因為這世上沒有一個人是無所不知的,不同的食譜可能含有某些尚未被發現的重點,或是良好的概念。至於你所使用的肉類,善加變化可幫助貓獲得所有基本的營養,確保貓得到最佳營養需求。仔細選擇食譜,網路上的食譜並不是每一份都是很棒的。我還看過含有米、馬鈴薯和豆子的貓食譜。那些食材是我不會拿來餵貓的。
 
But, whatever recipe you do choose, or if you decide to use a pre-mixed supplement meant specifically to be added to raw meat, you need to do it right. You can't just decide to omit an ingredient because you couldn't find it. Many of the stories that the anti-raw diet folks cite to demonstrate how "unbalanced" homemade diets are, are examples of people losing their common sense and drifting radically from good recipe-following practices. Our good friend Anne Jablonski has a rather frightening example of this. A woman's raw-fed cat was getting sickly and fragile. It turned out that she had read – and she didn't confirm this information – that bone was irritating to a cat's digestive system. She was also tired of cleaning the bone bits out of the grinder. So, she eliminated the bone from the recipe. She did not provide a calcium replacement. The poor cat had been fed a calcium deficient diet for four years and was dissolving its own bones to compensate.
 
但是,不管你選擇哪一份食譜,或是你決定要用生肉餐專用的預拌粉,你都必須正確的去製作貓食。你不能自行決定省略任何一種食材,只因為你找不到那種食材。有許多沒有使用基本常識,而自行更改食譜的故事,被生肉反對者拿來作為反對的理由,抨擊生肉餐是如何的營養不均衡。我們的好朋友安.傑伯洛斯基(即A食譜作者)有一個嚇人的例子。有一個女人的生肉貓生病了,因為她從某處讀到資料,而且是沒有經過求證的資料,說骨頭對貓的消化系統不好。加上厭倦了清理絞肉機內的碎骨,於是她擅作主張把食譜要用的骨頭全部省略不用,而且沒有另外補充鈣質。在吃了這份缺鈣的食譜四年後,可憐的貓生病了,自身骨頭溶解,以彌補身體所需。
 
Follow a recipe, use a good pre-mix or feed balanced, complete, pre-made frozen raw diets. Better yet, do all of these. And throw in some well-sourced whole meats. Mix up the menu. Variety is good. Don't give the anti-raw diet folks ammunition to criticize this great way of feeding our cats a very healthy diet. They don't really have much to work with if mistakes like this aren't made.
 
確實的遵照食譜製作貓食、使用可靠的預拌粉,或是餵營養完整的商業生肉。這三種方式都採用更好。使用來源可靠的肉。餵不同的生肉餐。變化是好事。生肉餐是健康的貓食,不要給反對餵生肉的人抓到批評的機會。如果沒有人用錯誤的方式餵貓吃生肉,反對者就沒有借題發揮的藉口。
 
As you know, making a balanced raw meat diet isn't very difficult. The next thing is to ensure the cats are actually eating it. I have a cautionary tale from personal experience for others in a multi-cat household. As we recommend, I usually feed a supplemented ground raw diet along with various meat chunks to give them some good chewing exercise. With as many cats as we have, mealtime is a communal affair. I put out the food and come back in 15 or so minutes and it's gone. One time, right after I had added whole meats to the menu, I stuck around and observed. I wanted to see who liked what. I discovered one cat was eating only the meat chunks. I checked a few more times, and she did it again. I was very glad I observed this behavior before anything went amiss. A diet of just plain meat is seriously unbalanced. No supplements and no calcium.
 
你已經知道自製營養均衡的貓生肉餐並不難。下一個重點是確定貓都有把肉吃下去。我有一個親身經驗可以提供多貓家庭做參考。如同我們貓科營養網站所建議,我餵的是有加入營養品的生肉泥,並且含有不同肉類的肉塊,讓貓有咀嚼食物的機會。因為我家貓多,用餐時間是群體活動。我把食物擺出來,大約十五分鐘後再回去看,食物已經清空。有一次我加了不同的肉進去,把食物擺好後我沒有離開,因為想觀察誰喜歡哪種肉。我發現有一隻貓只吃肉塊。又觀察了幾次後,發現這傢伙再一次的只吃肉塊。還好我有留下來觀察,不然只吃肉塊是會吃出問題的。一份只有肉的生肉餐是不均衡的。沒有補充營養品也沒有鈣。
 
So, if you are feeding many cats, you need to be sure that they are all actually eating the food you so carefully made for them. Your food may be perfectly complete and nutritionally balanced, but that won't matter a bit if the cat finds a way to not eat it.
 
如果有多貓要餵,必需確定每一隻都有吃下你仔細準備的食物。要是有一隻貓用不同的方式,去吃你準備的食物,就算你提供的是營養均衡的食物也沒有用。
 
譯者個人經驗:
我的十二隻貓在吃肉時,我都會全程在一旁監督。每一隻貓每一餐的進食狀況我都可以很清楚的掌握。例如有貓吃很快想要搶食,我會阻止。吃帶骨肉塊的貓如果噎到,我也會立刻發現,雖然目前為止沒有發生過這種狀況,因為貓不會把根本就吞不下去的骨頭硬是要吞下去,這是常識,但還是小心為上。倒是有一次小眼睛把很細的一根骨頭直接吞下去而噎到,還好他自己用力的把骨頭吐出來。那次之後我學到要避免給太細的可以直接吞下去的骨頭,要大一點的骨頭讓貓啃,才能達到啃骨頭清潔牙齒運動上下顎的目的。如果不放心給帶骨生肉,那就給大塊的無骨肉塊,要大到貓需要啃才能吞下去的大小,如果太小塊貓直接吞下去,就達不到咀嚼的目的了。
 
幾年前開始自製時,我對貓所需要的營養是無知的,所以我規規矩矩的照著皮爾森的食譜做。在此同時我一邊閱讀有關貓科營養的相關資料,慢慢的知道為什麼要補充維他命、如何變化肉類以及變化之必要、從大便觀察食譜使用的骨頭比例是否恰當等等。所以如果你想要自製但跟我一樣對貓所需要的營養並不瞭解,請選擇一分來源可靠的食譜,然後照著做。
 
但是有太多人無法或是不願意照著食譜做,老實說我實在想不出來不願意照著食譜做的原因。例如幾年前有一個貓友在我的部落格提出一個問題,他說不想餵生肉,想餵熟食,所以使用雞肉、牛磺酸、蛋殼粉去自製貓食可不可以。雖然這是一個幾年前貓友的問題,但老實說現在一定還有人在如此的自創食譜,在對貓的營養需求不甚了了的狀況下自創食譜,吃出了問題,乾乾派獸醫就可以更加大聲的說自製貓食是一個糟透了的作法。
 
這名貓友的自創食譜有一些問題,例如雞肉、牛磺酸、蛋殼粉這三者之間的比例是多少?例如沒有使用到內臟。所有自製生肉餐中都需要使用到內臟,即使熟食也是。
 
其實這位貓友算是好的,因為他來問我這樣子的搭配可不可行,天知道有多少貓友根本沒有閱讀相關資料,就自創食譜起來。我當時給這位貓友的回覆是如果要煮熟食,那去買一本蘇菁菁的貓食譜書來看照著做。
 
所以,在對貓科營養需求不是很瞭解的情況下,懇請大家不要自創食譜。吃出問題讓獸醫罵是小事,傷害貓的健康是很大的大事。

 
我在絞肉時習慣把帶骨肉放一邊,去骨肉放一邊,絞肉時丟一塊帶骨肉配幾塊去骨肉,自以為這樣攪拌時可以拌得比較均勻。
 
祝大家週末愉快
 
Margaret Gates is the founder the Feline Nutrition Foundation.

 


啃肉塊和骨頭對貓牙齒的影響←上一篇 │首頁│ 下一篇→帕頓哲醫生的貓生食實驗 (1932-1942)