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啃肉塊和骨頭對貓牙齒的影響


Chunks and Bones For Your Cat's Teeth
啃肉塊和骨頭對貓牙齒的影響
 
Last Updated on Sunday, January 24, 2016 05:58 PM
Published on Wednesday, October 05, 2011 01:04 PM
Written by Guillermo Díaz, MV
 
最近更新:2016年1月24日
原始刊出日:2011年10月5日
作者:獸醫基勒摩.迪亞茲(Guillermo Diaz, MV
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/health/chunks-and-bones-for-your-cat-s-teeth
 
Knowing that chewing on meat chunks and small pieces with bones, such as chicken wings, are "nature's toothbrush" for cats, I want my cat to eat these to help clean her teeth. But, she refuses to eat meat chunks no matter what I try. Someone told me this could be because her teeth hurt. I have noticed some tartar on her teeth. Could this be why she won't eat chunks?
 
問:
我知道啃肉塊和小塊的帶骨生肉,例如雞翅膀,對貓而言是天然的牙刷,我也希望我的貓願意啃,但是不管我怎麼試,她就是不願意啃肉塊。有人跟我說可能是因為啃肉塊時貓的牙齒會痛所以不願啃。我發現她的牙齒有一些結石。這有可能是她不願意啃肉塊的原因嗎?
 
Domestic cats are strict carnivores. They evolved to hunt, ingest and efficiently digest small prey. They have developed very specific taste and scent capabilities that prevent them from consuming anything that is not fresh. In the wild, they would eat many small-volume meals during a 24 hour day, around 10 to 20 on average, many just a bite or two. Let's grab a tiny mouse in our hands and if we are keen observers, we'll discover the features that make it so appealing to a cat:
 
家貓是肉食動物。進化使然貓會打獵,吃下小型獵物,而且身體可以很有效率的消化小型獵物。貓有特別的味覺和嗅覺,所以不會去吃下任何不新鮮的食物。野外的貓平均一天會吃十到二十隻小型獵物,而且很多獵物貓只是咬個一兩口而已就不吃了,不是全部吃下去。貓的獵物之一老鼠有以下特色:
 
  • Each mouse weighs between 20 to 40 grams or .7 to 1.4 ounces, very small chunks.
  • They are warm, about 39°C or 102°F.
  • They smell good: blood and flesh odor produced by volatile fatty acids of the prey.
  • They are juicy, about 75% water content.
 
  • 一隻老鼠的體重大約介於20到40公克之間
  • 體溫大約是攝氏39度
  • 鼠味對貓而言是好聞的:藉由揮發性脂肪酸所散發出來的血和肉的味道
  • 多汁,因為老鼠的含水量大約是75%
 
What can we infer from all of this? When feeding an indoor cat, we should try to re-create the whole prey our cat would be eating in the wild. If your cat doesn't want to eat the food presented to her, you should check to see if some of these features are missing. We need to remember that no man-made diet can hope to compare to fresh, natural, whole food. But, if this fresh food is unfamiliar to your cat, she may not take to it right away or won't eat it at all.
 
從以上這些特點我們可以推測出什麼?就是當我們在餵一隻室內貓吃肉時,我們應該試著去複製貓在野外所可能吃到的整隻獵物。如果你的貓不喜歡吃你準備的食物,或許你要檢討一下你準備的食物,少了哪些以上所列的老鼠特色。雖然我們準備的食物,不同於新鮮且自然的整隻獵物,但是如果你準備的新鮮食物,對貓而言是不熟悉的食物,貓可能不會立刻就吃起來,或者根本就不願意吃。
 
There could be more than one reason why a cat refuses to eat meat chunks and raw meaty bones. Let's take a look at some of the possibilities.
 
貓不願意吃生肉塊和帶骨生肉的原因可能不止一個。我們來看看一些其他的可能原因:
 
  • Characteristics of meat itself:
  • Size and shape
  • Temperature
  • Taste and smell
  • Consistency
 
  1. 肉本身的特性
  2. 大小和形狀
  3. 溫度
  4. 口感和味道
  5. 肉的軟硬質感
 
Pertaining to the cat:
 
跟貓本身有關的原因:
 
  • Habit and neophobia (a tendency to dislike anything new)
  • Dental problems
 
  • 習慣以及不喜歡新事物的天性
  • 口腔問題
 
The best size, shape and temperature of the meat can be determined with some experimentation to see what your cat prefers. Taste, smell and consistency will vary with the kind of meat you choose, and your cat may have preferred types.
 
可以做一些實驗,找出你的貓喜歡的肉塊大小、形狀和溫度。不同的肉有不同的口感、味道和軟硬度,你的貓可能偏好其中幾種。
 
Habit and neophobia are two terms that go together when it comes to changing the diet of a cat. Habit would be what a cat is used to eating. That is, what she likes, but not necessarily what is healthiest for her, such as dry kibble or cooked bones. Neophobia is an aversion to the new and is very common amongst cats, meaning that a cat won't eat a new food presented to her. A cat's eating habits in her first few months of life play a big part in this. She will tend to eat and accept those meals she was presented with as a kitten.
 
幫貓轉換食物時,習慣和不喜歡新事物這兩件事往往會同時出現。習慣指的是貓習慣吃的食物。也就是貓喜歡吃的食物,但不見得是最健康的食物,例如乾飼料或是煮過的骨頭。至於不喜歡新事物,很多貓有這個特性,也就是不喜歡任何你餵的新食物。貓生頭幾個月的進食習慣,會對接下來的貓生產生重大影響。貓在年幼時就習慣吃的食物,在長大為成貓後也會很習慣的繼續吃。
 
Dental disease is one of the main reasons a cat may be reluctant to eat. It starts with plaque accumulation on the surface of the teeth, which then turns into tartar. This traps oral bacteria at the gum line, causing bad breath. The trapped bacteria multiply and produce toxins that can lead to painful infections, loosening of the attachments of gums to teeth, bone loss and eventual tooth loss. Even worse, these toxins don't remain only inside the mouth of the cat. They can enter the bloodstream and travel throughout the body, damaging the lungs, liver, kidneys and the valves of the heart.¹ Kidney damage leads to renal insufficiency, which can lead to death.
 
口腔問題有可能是貓不願意吃食物的主要原因之一。一開始是牙垢累積在牙齒表面,日積月累變成牙結石。結石把口腔細菌困在牙齦線中,造成口臭。受困的細菌增生,製造出有毒物質,導致疼痛發炎,粘附在牙齦的牙齒開始鬆動,骨質流失,終至掉牙。更糟的是,這些有毒物質不是只有停留在口腔內部而已,還會隨著血液貫穿至全身,破壞肺、肝、腎臟和心臟瓣膜(註1)。腎臟被破壞造成功能不全,可能致命。
 
Most oral pain in cats is the result of long-standing infection, fractured teeth with exposed pulp or the presence of resorptive lesions in their teeth. If a cat with dental problems is presented with a new food such as meat chunks and experiences pain during chewing, then this kitty will probably never be willing to eat this kind of food again.
 
大部分口腔疼痛的貓是因為長期感染、牙齒斷裂且牙髓外露,或是齒中有齒頸再吸收病變(貓破牙細胞再吸收病害)。有口腔問題的貓在面對新食物時,例如肉塊,可能會在咀嚼時造成口腔疼痛,因而拒絕新食物。
 
I recommend looking inside your cat's mouth to check for any tartar, or have your vet check your kitty's teeth. Once tartar is present, chewing meat chunks or raw meaty bones is unlikely to remove it. Take your kitty to the vet for a dental checkup and cleaning. Once your cat's teeth are cleaned and you know she is not experiencing any dental pain, then introduce the new, whole foods. Any aversion at this point will be for other reasons, not because of dental problems.
 
我建議檢查貓的牙齒有無結石,請獸醫檢查也可。一旦結石已經形成,咀嚼肉塊或是啃帶骨肉不太可能可以清除結石。帶貓去給獸醫檢查以及清潔口腔。牙齒清理乾淨,貓的口腔不再疼痛時,再餵貓吃新食物。如果還是拒吃,那應該是其他原因,而不是口腔問題了。
 
Cats who chew raw bones must work their jaws to gnaw the meat and marrow from the bone, creating a natural toothbrush and tooth polisher that help keep your cats' teeth clean.² Cats who consume raw meaty bones daily usually have white teeth, healthy pink gums and fresh-smelling breath. Raw bones appropriate for cats include fresh chicken necks and wings, which the cat can completely consume. Never cook bones, even in the microwave, as cooking can make them more likely to splinter.
 
貓在啃咬肉和骨頭中的骨髓時,帶動上下顎運作,形成刷牙的效果,保持牙齒清潔(註2)。每天吃帶骨生肉的貓,牙齒潔白,牙齦是健康的粉紅色,而且口氣清新。適合貓吃的帶骨生肉包括雞脖子和翅膀,貓可以全部吃下去。絕對不要把骨頭煮熟,即使是微波加熱,因為煮熟的骨頭容易斷裂。
 
譯者補充:
 
我家有三隻吃帶骨肉的貓,牙齒的確健康又潔白,沒有牙垢。可是這三隻都才一歲多,牙齒狀況良好是應該的,要再繼續觀察才能有比較客觀的結論。
 
Note: Feline Nutrition provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. Feline Nutrition disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.
 
免責聲明:Feline Nutrition (貓科營養) 基於公共服務的精神提供貓科健康和營養訊息。診斷或治療的行為應該是由你的獸醫進行。本網站所提供的任何獸醫建議和資訊,Feline Nutrition 不負任何責任。
 
If you have a question, please send it to answers@felinenutritionfoundation.orgWhile we cannot answer questions individually, if your question would be helpful to others, we may post it in Answers.
 
Dr. Guillermo Díaz studied veterinary medicine at the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Perú. He currently practices in Lima and also provides veterinary services to a large number of local rescue organizations.
 
本文作者獸醫基勒摩.迪亞茲(Dr. Guillermo Diza) 就讀位於秘魯利馬的 Universidad Mayor de San Marcos 獸醫系。他目前在利馬執業,同時提供許多當地的動物救援組織獸醫服務。
 
  1. David A. Fagan, DDS, Dental Consultant and Mark S. Edwards, PhD, Nutritionist, "Influence of Diet Consistency on Periodontal Disease in Captive Carnivores," The Colyer Institute, 2009.
  2. Fagan, et al, "Influence of Diet Consistency on Periodontal Disease in Captive Carnivores."


 


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