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March 3, 2017

加工寵物食品的安全。科學研究怎麼說?


THE SAFETY OF PROCESSED PET FOOD    
WHAT DOES THE SCIENCE SAY?     
加工寵物食品的安全
科學研究怎麼說?
 
“Manufactured food relies on words to identify itself.
Real food needs no explanation.”
(Joanna Blythman, 2015)*
 
加工食品依靠文字來自我肯定
真正的食物則不需要任何解釋
 
本文作者:Joanna Blythman,出生於一九五六年,英國人,現職為食物調查記者和作家。目前已出版七本研究食物的書籍。這篇文章取自她的上一本著作Swallow This: Serving Up the Food Industry's Darkest Secrets.(食品業最黑暗的秘密),出版於二零一五年。
 
文章出處連結:http://www.rawessentials.co.nz/site/articles-plain-text/articles/the-safety-of-processed-pet-food-what-does-the-science-say
 
 
well-planned, species-appropriate, raw diet provides cats and dogs with the nutrition they need for optimal health.
 
一份仔細設計,適合物種的生肉餐,提供貓狗最需要的養分,以達到最佳健康狀態。
 
A poorly-planned raw diet can have quite the opposite effect. For example, meat-only diets will lead to severe mineral imbalances, and mixed diets (raw and processed) can lead to a host of problems via digestive impairment.
 
沒有良好設計的生肉餐則可能帶來反效果。例如,只有肉的生肉餐會造成嚴重的礦物質不平衡,生食和加工食品混合餵食則可能減弱或是破壞消化。
 
As raw diets have come back into popularity, vets have become increasingly concerned for the wellbeing of pets whose owners have received incorrect advice regarding raw feeding. This has led many vets to being unsupportive of raw-feeding, regardless of how it is done.
 
隨著生肉餐再度受到認同,那些在餵生肉時,沒有接收到正確建議的動物主人,讓獸醫格外擔心動物的健康。
 
These vets favour feeding a processed ‘premium’ diet which has been tested by AAFCO (the Association of American Feed Control Officials) to ensure that it provides ‘complete and balanced’ nutrition for cats and dogs. These diets are commonly assumed to provide safe and appropriate nutrition.
 
這些獸醫偏好餵加工過的「頂級」食品,有通過AAFCO(美國動物飼料管理協會)的測試,以確保提供貓狗「完整且均衡」的養分。這類的食品通常被認為可以提供安全且恰當的營養。
 
AAFCO publishes nutrient profiles for cats and dogs. They base their profiles on the NRC (National Research Council) nutrient guidelines, but tweak them to make it easier for manufacturers to formulate a processed pet food out of ingredients that do not form a natural part of the pet’s diet. A pet food can meet AAFCO accreditation standards in two ways: by providing a nutrient analysis which falls within the AAFCO parameters; or by paying for their food to be AAFCO-tested in a brief feeding trial on a small number of cats and dogs.
 
AAFCO針對貓狗的營養需求訂出標準。他們的標準是參考NRC(美國國家研究協會)而來,但AAFCO調整了NRC的標準,以便讓製造商可以使用貓狗天生不吃的食材,調配出加工寵物食品。一個寵物食品要符合AAFCO的認證標準有兩種方式:提供符合AAFCO參考數值的養分分析表;或是付費請AAFCO進行短期的活體餵養實驗,對象是少數的貓和狗。
 
AAFCO nutrient profiles are intended to ‘maintain’ a dog or cat without overt nutrient deficiencies developing over a short period of time. Standard veterinary advice is to feed a cat or dog an AAFCO-approved or AAFCO-tested diet in order to meet the ‘complete and balanced’ nutritional needs of the pet.
 
AAFCO制定的養分標準,是以維持一隻貓或狗的身體健康為目的,在短期之內不會出現明顯的營養不良。標準的獸醫建議是餵貓或狗符合AAFCO標準,或是通過AAFCO餵養實驗的食品,讓寵物能夠獲得「完整且均衡」的營養。
 
The majority of vets have confidence that AAFCO accreditation of a food will protect dogs and cats from nutritional disease. A recent episode of 'Lateline' in Australia described a study published in the Australian Veterinary Journal (2016)1 in which supermarket cat foods were analysed and shown not to contain the nutrient levels stated on the labels.
 
大部分的獸醫對符合AAFCO標準的食物具有信心,認為如此的食物可以保護貓狗健康。在最近一集的澳洲「夜線」(Lateline)電視節目中,報導了一份出版於澳洲獸醫期刊(2016)(註1)的研究報告。這份研究報告分析了超市貓食,發現食物中的養分數值,並沒有達到產品標籤上所宣稱的數字。
 
Studies showing that the contents of a bag of dog or cat food does not match the nutritional analysis on the label are not new. A review of some of these studies makes it hard to accept that processed pet food is anything like the ‘complete and balanced,’ safe, high quality product that their marketers would have us believe.
 
貓狗食物中的養分數值,並沒有達到產品標籤上所宣稱的數字的研究報告,並不是第一次出現。而且在重新檢視這些研究報告後,要去接受加工寵物食品,真如製造商所言是營養「完整而均衡」的高品質安全產品,是一件很困難的事。
 
FAILING TO MEET AAFCO, NRC, OR DIETARY REQUIREMENT STANDARDS
沒有符合AAFCONRC或飲食需求標準
 
The study2 featured on the 'Lateline' show analysed 10 wet and 10 dry ‘complete and balanced’ commercial cat foods. They compared the results with the labelling on the packages, and with established dietary requirements (AFFCO and NRC) for cats.
The nutrient compositions and guaranteed analyses listed on the labels failed to match the chemical analyses carried out in the study.
 
「夜線」節目所提到的研究報告(註2),分析了十種濕食和十種乾飼料,皆是營養「完整而均衡」的商業貓食。他們把分析結果拿來和產品標籤上的數字做比較,並且也和AAFCO和NRC制定的貓飲食需求標準做比較。研究發現標籤上的營養成分和分析數字,並不符合這份研究報告所進行的化學分析而得到的數字。
 
Deficiencies and excesses of various nutrients were found in nearly all the samples, many of which were identified as potentially harmful to cats ingesting the diets. Studies in the U.S. and New Zealand have found similar problems. In a 2004 study from the Archives of Veterinary Medicine3 33 brands of dry dog food were analysed to see if they met AAFCO standards.
 
幾乎在所有的樣本中,都發現有多種養分不足或過量,當中許多成分甚至被認為對貓身體健康可能有害,如果被攝取進入體內。在美國和紐西蘭進行的研究也有類似的問題。一份獸醫醫學的文獻資料庫中的2004年研究報告(註3),分析了三十三個品牌的狗乾飼料,以瞭解是否有符合AAFCO的標準。
 
Seven foods had an incorrect calcium:phosphorus ratio. There were inadequacies for potassium (13 foods), zinc (7), iodine (12) and selenium (1). Only 12% (4) of the foods met the minimum requirements for protein, fats and minerals. Five of the deficient foods had passed AAFCO feed trials.
 
其中七件食品有錯誤的鈣磷比,此外還有不足的鉀含量(十三件)、鋅含量(七件)、碘含量(十二件)和硒含量(一件)。只有百分之十二(四件)的食物符合最低的蛋白質、脂肪和礦物質要求。在養分不足的食品中,有五件有通過AAFCO的餵養實驗。
 
譯者補充:
以上是在說寵物食品包裝上標示的數字,並不符合實際送檢所得到的數字。

A New Zealand study (1997)4 compared the nutrient composition of 29 wet cat foods (5 budget, 17 premium, 7 super-premium) to the AAFCO cat maintenance nutrient profile.
 
一份紐西蘭的研究報告(1997年)(註4)針對二十九種貓濕食的營養成分(五件低價品,十七件高價品,七件超高價品),比較AAFCO的養分標準。
 
譯註:從研究的年份看來,我覺得應該是註3,不是註4。
 
Nine of the foods did not meet the AAFCO profiles. Five of these contained inadequate taurine. Four contained excessive levels of methionine. Sixty percent of the budget, 18% of the premium, and 43% of the super-premium foods failed to meet AAFCO standards.
 
有九件食品不符合AAFCO的標準。其中五件的牛磺酸含量不足。四件有過量的甲硫氨酸。60%的低價品,18%的高價品,43%超高價品,不符合AAFCO的標準。

譯者補充:
這兩小段說是把自稱符合AAFCO的寵物食品送去測試,結果不符合AAFCO標準的食品佔了60%-18%不等。
 
NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES – THIAMINE 硫胺(維他命B1& TAURINE
含量不足-硫胺(維他命B1)和牛磺酸
 
Cats and dogs require dietary thiamine (a B vitamin) to stay healthy. Many factors (such as age, genetics, disease, and diet) influence the thiamine requirements of individual cats and dogs. An uncorrected deficiency can be fatal. Thiamine is found naturally in meat products – particularly liver, heart and kidneys.
 
貓和狗需要從食物中攝取硫氨(一種維他命B)以維持健康。許多因素(例如年紀、基因、疾病和飲食)會影響貓狗的硫氨需求量。攝取不足的情況如果沒有加以矯正,可能會致命。硫氨存在於肉品中-尤其是肝臟、心臟和腎臟。
 
Thiamine deficiency factors: 
造成硫氨不足的因素:
 
  • Inadequate thiamine levels in the diet
  • Heat processing reduces thiamine levels in the food by 50-90%
  • Lack of acidity: many canned foods contain alkalinizing gelling agents that reduce acidity and therefore the availability of thiamine
  • Excessive amounts of some types of fish in the diet will inactivate dietary thiamine
  • Sulphite preservatives inactivate dietary thiamine (a serious problem in raw diets that use preservatives)
  • High grain diets reduce thiamine absorption.
    • 食物中的硫氨量不足
    • 加熱過程會減少食物中50-90%的硫氨量
    • 缺乏酸性:許多罐頭含有會降低酸度的鹼性凝膠劑,因此硫氨的含量也隨之降低
    • 食物中某種特定的魚太多,消滅硫氨活性
    • 亞硫酸鹽防腐劑消滅食物中的硫氨活性(有使用防腐劑的生肉餐的嚴重問題)
    • 食物中的高榖物含量降低硫氨吸收率
A study in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (2014)5 examined a selection of 90 tinned cat foods (from 45 different brands) – all of them formulated to meet AAFCO nutrient profile standards. Most of the foods were from the US, but four of them were from New Zealand. 
 
刊登在美國獸醫協會期刊的一份報告(2014年)(註5),研究了90種罐頭貓食(來自45個不同品牌)-全部皆符合AAFCO標準。大部份的食物來自美國,但其中四種來自紐西蘭。
 
Over 13% of the samples had thiamine levels below AAFCO standards, and 15.6% of the samples contained less thiamine than NRC levels (the NRC are considered the benchmark for nutrient level recommendations). The presence of fish in the samples did not affect the likelihood of thiamine deficiency.
 
樣本中,有13%的硫氨量低於AAFCO標準,15.6%的硫氨量低於NRC標準(NRC標準被認為是養分標準的依據)。樣本中的魚含量沒有影響到硫氨含量。
 
Taurine is an amino acid required by cats and dogs for a range of vital functions. Dogs (unlike cats, who rely absolutely on dietary taurine) are able to synthesise taurine. Nevertheless, dogs can still develop taurine deficiency if they have inadequate dietary intake. Taurine is found in abundance in animal-source proteins. Taurine deficiency can be fatal.
 
就身體許多重要功能而言,牛磺酸是一種貓狗皆需要的氨基酸。狗(貓只能完全仰賴來自食物的牛磺酸)能夠自行合成牛磺酸。然而如果攝取量不足,狗還是有可能會出現牛磺酸不足而造成的症狀。動物蛋白質中含有豐富的牛磺酸。牛磺酸不足可能會致命。
 
Food processing techniques - such as heat, and the addition of fibre - destroy or reduce taurine availability, so manufacturers have to add taurine into their formulations in order to meet required levels. There are two potential problems with this. One: as we have already seen, it is common for processed food to contain lower levels of nutrients than stated on the packaging. And two: both external and individual factors lead to a great deal of variation in the taurine requirements of a cat or dog. A study in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (2003)6 looked at a group of Newfoundlands exhibiting a high rate of taurine deficiency despite being fed 'complete and balanced’ diets.
 
食物加工技術-例如加熱以及補充纖維-破壞牛磺酸或是降低其有效性,所以製造商在配方中加入牛磺酸以符合營養需求的標準。這麼做有兩種潛在的問題。第一種,如我們已經看到的,加工食品中的實際牛磺酸含量,低於產品標籤上所註明的含量。第二種,個貓或個狗的外在以及個體因素,造成非常不一樣的牛磺酸攝取需求量。一份刊登在美國獸醫協會期刊中的報告(2003年)(註6),研究一群紐芬蘭犬,發現出現高比例的牛磺酸攝取不足現象,儘管這些狗吃的是營養「完整且均衡」的食品。
 
The authors proposed that certain diets may promote taurine loss in the gastrointestinal tract at a rate which exceeds taurine production. They referenced research in cats that shows taurine losses in the gut are increased by the presence of rice; bran; or low-quality, heat-damaged proteins in the diet.
 
這份研究報告的作者們認為,某種食物可能會促使腸胃道中,牛磺酸的流失率高於製造率。根據他們所參考的貓研究報告,當食物中含有米、穀物外皮;或是低品質的、被加熱過程破壞的蛋白質時,腸道中牛磺酸流失的比例會被提高
 
The authors explained that genetics make some animals more susceptible to deficiency. This means that the ‘complete and balanced’ claim of AAFCO approved or AAFCO tested foods may only be sufficient for maintenance if a pet is fortunate enough to have the right genetics.
 
作者們解釋基因使然有些動物比較容易出現牛磺酸攝取不足的狀況。這表示符合AAFCO標準或是餵養實驗,營養「完整而均衡」的產品,可能僅僅只能維持一隻寵物的基本所需,如果這隻寵物很幸運的擁有正確的基因。
 
 
HEAT PROCESSING - TAURINE & CARCINOGENS
加熱過程-牛磺酸和致癌物
 
Commercial pet foods are manufactured using high-heat processes.7
Heat processing makes pet food more allergenic7,8 and carcinogenic9. It also disrupts the structure of proteins, resulting in the loss of amino acids (such as taurine) from the original ingredients.6
 
商業寵物食品是使用高溫加工製造而成(註7)。加熱過程讓寵物食品更可能引起過敏反應(註7和8)和致癌(註9)。而且加熱過程破壞蛋白質結構,結果是造成食材中的氨基酸流失(例如牛磺酸)(註6)。
 
When heated, proteins in the food interact with sugars and undergo non-enzymatic glycosylation – this is known as the Maillard reaction.7 The reaction produces melanoidin protein complexes, which are poorly digested, and are absorbed across the gut mucosa, thus provoking an immune response.7,8
 
蛋白質被加熱後,和食物中的糖產生互動,進行非酵素性褐變(非酵素糖基化)-也就是所謂的梅拉德反應(註7)。這個反應製造出類黑精(擬黑素)蛋白質複合物,不但不容易消化,而且會被腸粘膜吸收,刺激引出一種免疫反應(註7和8)。
 
The authors of a case-controlled studyin the Journal of Nutrition (1996)6 showed that the Maillard reaction reduces taurine levels. They suggested that products of the reaction alter gut microbes in such a way that promotes taurine deficiency (via increased degradation, and decreased recycling).
 
在營養期刊(1996)的一份病例對照研究中(註6),作者們指出梅拉德反應降低牛磺酸含量。他們認為梅拉德反應所產生的物質改變腸道微生物,造成牛磺酸含量不足(藉由提高降解,以及降低再循環)。
 
The Maillard reaction also leads to the formation of damaging compounds. A study in the journal, Mutation Research (2003)9 analysed 25 commercial cat and dog foods for the presence of mutagenic compounds such as carcinogens and heterocyclic amines.
 
梅拉德反應也會導致具有破壞性的複合物的形成。在突變研究期刊(2003)(註9)的一份研究中,分析了25件商業貓食和狗食,尋找其中是否含有誘導有機體突變的複合物,例如致癌物和多環胺類。
 
Twenty-four of the foods tested positive, and the authors hypothesized that there is a connection between the consumption of the compounds via commercial pet food, and the high rates of cancer in domestic dogs and cats.
 
測驗結果發現其中24件含有誘導有機體突變物質,該份研究作者們因而推測,寵物食品中的誘導有機體突變物質,和家庭寵物貓狗的癌症高發生率,兩者之間是有關聯的。

譯者補充:
以上四段是在說在製造寵物食品的過程中,需要用到極高的溫度,食材因此出現梅拉德反應。什麼是梅拉德反應?就是烤肉或烤玉米時,肉或玉米的表面被烤的焦黑的部份,那就是梅拉德反應,我想大家都知道那焦黑的部份含有致癌物。寵物食品,尤其是乾飼料,是以很高的溫度製造而成,因為要把食材製造成肉粉。高溫造成梅拉德反應。2003年有一群研究家分析了25件商業貓狗食品,發現24件都有梅拉德反應,也就是都有致癌物,因此研究的學者認為寵物的癌症高發生率,是因為食物中有致癌物。這裏沒有寫明這25件食品是乾飼料還是罐頭,但我覺得乾飼料的可能性比較高,因為乾飼料的製程溫度高於罐頭。

LIMITED ANTIGEN DIET - NOVEL PROTEIN & HYDROLYSED
限制抗原的食物-新蛋白質和水解
 
Adverse Food Reactions (AFR) in dogs are routinely diagnosed by putting the dog on a limited antigen diet (novel protein, or hydrolysed diet) for a period of time to see if complete removal of common proteins alleviates symptoms. These food trials fail to be of use for either diagnostics or treatment if the diets are contaminated with common proteins.
 
當狗出現不良的食物反應時,典型做法是開始吃一種限制抗原的食物(新蛋白質,或是水解飲食),一段時間後,觀察除去食物中的一般蛋白質後,症狀有沒有減輕。如果這種食物被一般蛋白質污染,在診斷或治療不良的食物反應時,這種限制抗原的食物是沒有用的。
 
譯註:這裏寫的限制抗原食物,是市面上所謂的減敏處方食品。
 
Limited antigen diets have gained a significant market share in recent years. They are available at a premium cost from Vet clinics, and many other pet food retailers. A U.S. study (2011)10 tested four over-the-counter, dry, venison dog foods to see whether they were contaminated with common allergens (soy, poultry and beef) that were not declared on the label.
 
近幾年限制抗原的食物獲得了可觀的市佔率。這種食品價格不菲,可以在動物醫院以及其他寵物食品零售商店購得。一份美國的研究(2011年)(註10),測試了四種開架式販賣的鹿肉口味狗乾飼料,以瞭解是否有受到一般過敏原(大豆、家禽和牛肉)的污染,那些沒有出現在產品標籤的一般過敏原。
 
All of the samples were contaminated with food allergens not declared on the label and therefore would be unsuitable for food allergy elimination diets, which is something that they would routinely be bought for.
 
所有樣品都受到了那些沒有出現在產品標籤的一般過敏原污染,因此不適合當做排除過敏原的食品,雖然那是飼主購買此項產品的原因。
 
A recent study in the Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2013)11 examined 12 canine limited antigen diets from 5 different manufacturers (11 novel protein, and 1 hydrolysed) for potential contamination with proteins not listed on the label.
 
動物生理和營養期刊(2013年)(註11)的一份最近的研究,測試了12種限制抗原的狗食,分別來自五個不同的製造商(其中11種是不同的蛋白質,一種水解),以瞭解是否有被包裝上沒有列出來的蛋白質污染。
 
The authors found that 10 of the 12 foods tested were contaminated with one or more potentially allergenic proteins or fats not listed on the labels. They concluded that the use of a non-commercial novel-protein diet should be considered for ruling out AFR.
 
這份研究的作者們發現,在這12種食物中,有10種被一種或一種以上的過敏原蛋白質或是脂肪污染,儘管產品標籤上並沒有標示含有此種蛋白質或脂肪。這些作者的結論是,要排除不良的食物反應時,應該使用非商業化的新蛋白質食品。
 
The authors discussed a previous study (Ricci et al, 2009)12 which showed that processed limited antigen diets have significantly higher amounts of omega-3 fatty acids added to them (compared to normal processed diets). They suggested that the anti-inflammatory effect of the extra omega-3 fatty acids is responsible for the transient improvement in symptoms that is sometimes seen on limited antigen diets. Dog owners pay a premium for these diets, but there is a growing body of evidence that many (if not most) of these diets are marketed with false information.
 
作者研究一份先前的研究報告(力奇等人在2009年做的研究)(註12)。在那份研究報告中,顯示加工的限制抗原食物中,有額外補充大量的omega 3脂肪酸(和一般的加工寵物食品比較起來)。他們認為是食物中的omega 3脂肪酸所具有的抗發炎效果,讓食用限制抗原食物的動物,有時候可以看到症狀有短暫的改善。狗主人花很多錢買這種食物,但是有越來越多的證據顯示,許多(如果不是大多數)這種食物使用錯誤的訊息進行行銷。
 
BPA, & OTHER INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN PET FOOD
寵物食品受到BPA或其他工業化學物質污染
 
We already know that, despite labelling requirements, the nutritional panels on processed cat and dog foods commonly fail to truthfully represent what is actually contained in the food. There is no requirement for the many chemicals present in the packaging to be listed, but there is evidence that some of these chemicals can leech into the food. They are then ingested and metabolized by the cat or dog, and may cause health problems.
 
我們已經知道,儘管產品標籤的標示有受到要求,但是加工貓狗食品本身的真正養分等數字,往往沒有真實的反應在標籤上。有許多化學物質沒有被要求列在產品包裝上,但是有證據顯示這些化學物質中,有一些可能滲透進入食物中。這些化學物質被貓狗吃下肚子,進行新陳代謝,而且可能會造成健康問題。
 
BPA (an industrial chemical used to make plastics and resins) is an endocrine disruptor with oestrogenic activity, thus it can increase the rate of proliferation of some cancer cells. BPA easily passes across the placenta. It is commonly used to coat metal surfaces that will be holding food.

BPA(一種被用來製造塑膠和樹脂的工業化學物)是一種具有雌激素活性的內分泌破壞物,因此會提高某些癌細胞的增生率。BPA可以很容易的通過胎盤,普遍被使用在金屬食物容器的表面,當做塗料。
 
At least 25 different types of lacquers (such as BPA epoxy resins and polyvinyl chloride organosols) line food-grade cans. These compounds can migrate into the food. The processes used to prepare tinned pet food are known to cause leeching of BPA into the food. Smaller cans may pose a higher risk – the surface area on food in contact with the interior surface of the can is greater in smaller cans.
 
至少有25種不同的塗料(例如BPA環氧樹脂〔或人造樹脂〕和聚氯乙烯有機溶膠)被使用在裝食物的罐頭上。這些複合物可能會因此而滲入食物中。我們已經知道,被使用來準備罐頭寵物食品的製程,會造成BPA滲入食物。比較小的罐頭風險可能比較高-因為食物和比較多的罐頭表面面積有直接的接觸。
 
A study from Miyazaki University in Japan (2002)13 tested 15 tinned cat foods and 11 tinned dog foods for BPA. They also measured the amount of BPA leeching into the food.
 
日本宮崎大學進行一份研究(2002年)(註13),針對15種貓罐頭和11種狗罐頭進行檢驗,以瞭解有無含BPA。同時也測量有多少BPA滲入食物中。
 
BPA was found to be present, and leeching at varying levels in all the samples.
Note: BPA replacements in ‘BPA-free’ plastic and metal food products are now known to have similar endocrine disrupting characteristics.
 
在所有的樣本中,皆檢驗到BPA,滲透量不盡相同。注意:被使用來代替BPA的「不含BPA」塑膠和金屬食物產品,含有類似的破壞內分泌特性。
 
A study in the Journal of the American Veterinary Association (2004)14 confirmed what previous studies had shown: a significant association between hyperthyroidism in cats (especially females) and a history of eating tinned food (especially the ‘pop top’ tins which do not require a tin opener).
 
美國獸醫協會期刊的一份研究(2004)(註14)證實了先前的研究所得,也就是貓的甲狀腺機能亢進(尤其是母貓),和長期吃罐頭食物(尤其是那種不需要開罐器的拉環式罐頭)之間,有實質的聯結。
 
Heavy metals (such as mercury) and BPA contaminate commercial processed cat and dog food. BPA inhibits thyroid function. The body attempts to eliminate BPA via a process called glucuronidation. Glucuronidation is slower in cats than other species.
 
重金屬(例如水銀)和BPA污染商業貓狗食品。BPA抑制甲狀腺功能。身體藉由一個葡萄糖醛酸過程,試圖排除BPA。但是和其他物種比較起來,貓的葡萄糖醛酸過程比較慢。

譯者補充:
BPA是一種塗料被用來塗在罐頭的內層,因此會和食物有直接的接觸而被吃下去。長期吃下BPA會得到甲亢,這是已經被證實的研究。即使宣稱使用其他塗料來代替BPA的罐頭,其實還是具有相同的破壞特性。所以長期以罐頭為主食的貓,得到甲狀腺機能亢進的機率比較高。
 
The authors conclude:
作者結論
 
“we suggest that cat owners limit the feeding of foods packaged in pop-top cans when possible. If owners follow these recommendations, however, a reduction in the incidence of hyperthyroidism in cats may not be seen for many years because cats presently consuming foods in pop-top cans may have already developed irreversible thyroid damage.” 14
 
我們建議貓主人儘可能的不要購買拉環式的貓罐頭。然而,即使主人接受了這個建議,可能還要許多年後,才會看到貓的甲狀腺機能亢進發生率降低。因為目前可能已經有很多貓,因為吃了拉環式罐頭,而對甲狀腺造成無法逆轉的傷害了。
 
IS PROCESSED FOOD SAFE?
加工食物安全嗎?
 
Processed food is convenient and relatively cheap (unless you factor in potential lifetime healthcare costs). AAFCO-approved foods have achieved a gold-standard status of nutritional safety and completeness - however there is ample scientific evidence to show that this status is unmerited. 
 
加工食物方便又便宜(如果排除可能的健康醫療花費)。符合AAFCO標準的食物,符合營養安全而完整的黃金準則-然而許多科學證據證明,這條黃金準則浪得虛名。
 
A minimally processed, high quality, well-planned, species-appropriate diet - one that closely resembles the natural diet of the wild counterparts of domestic carnivores - is logically the best way to avoid the pitfalls of processing, and the guesswork that goes into developing nutritional guidelines.
 
餵製程最簡化、高品質、仔細設計、符合物種的食物-也就是最接近家中肉食動物同類的野外動物的自然食物-是避開加工處理食品的潛在風險,以及避開以猜測為基礎而設計出來的營養準則,符合邏輯的最好方式。
 
(全文完)

 
有些獸醫說因為有貓狗主人長期只餵去骨肉,導致動物生病,所以建議還是吃營養完整而均衡的乾飼料比較好。身為一個走火入魔的生食狂熱者,我不明白為什麼獸醫不建議吃主食罐?XD不奢求獸醫建議吃商業生食,但至少建議吃個主食罐吧!
 
想要知道更多養貓的知識,請買一本「你的貓」中文版,才三百多塊而已,買不到幾個主食罐,但可以獲得豐富的知識。
博客來:http://www.books.com.tw/products/0010743885
金石堂:http://www.kingstone.com.tw/ActivityPage_new/Default.aspx?aid=A1702200
 
(以下是這篇文章所參考的報告。我很無聊的全部都一一點進去大約讀了一下,發現所有的報告都是出自於沒有飼料商贊助的單位。下週會貼一篇在飼料商贊助的單位工作的獸醫寫的文章,讓各位比較。)
 
References
* Joanna Blythman, Swallow This: Serving Up the Food Industry’s Darkest Secrets. Published by Fourth Estate, London, 2015
1.      EC Gosper, D Raubenheimer, GE Machovsky-Capuska, and AV Chavesa, Discrepancy between the composition of some commercial cat foods and their package labelling and suitability for meeting nutritional requirements. Australian Veterinary Journal (2016), 94(1-2)
2.      S. M. Hodgkinson, B. Sc., M. Sc., Ph. D., C. E. Rosales, Ing. Agrón, D. Alomar, Ing. Agrón., Mg. Sci., D. Boroschek, M.V., Chemical nutritional evaluation of dry foods commercially available in Chile for adult dogs at maintenance. Arch. med. vet. (2004) 36(2), http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2004000200008
3.      Hendriks, WH; Tarttelin, MF, Nutrient composition of moist cat foods sold in New Zealand. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand (1997), 22:202-207
4.      Jessica E. Markovich, DVM; Lisa M. Freeman, DVM, phd; Cailin R. Heinze, VMD, MS, Analysis of thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats. JAVMA (2014), 244:2
5.      Robert C. Backus, DVM, PhD; Gabrielle Cohen, DVM; Paul D. Pion, DVM, DACVIM; Kathryn L. Good, DVM, DACVO; Quinton R. Rogers, PhD, DACVN; Andrea J. Fascetti, VMD, PhD, DACVN, DACVIM, Taurine deficiency in Newfoundlands fed commercially available complete and balanced diets. JAVMA (2003), 223(8)
6.      Seungwook w. Kim, Quinton r. Rogers and James g. Morris, Maillard Reaction Products in Purified Diets Induce Taurine Depletion in Cats Which Is Reversed by Antibiotics. The Journal of Nutrition, (1996), 126:195-201
7.      Manon de Wit, Immunological response to dietary proteins in cats. Veterinary Medicine, Research Project at Massey University, Palmerston North. Supervisors: Massey University, New Zealand Nick Cave, BVSc. MVSc. PhD. MANZCVS. DipAC. Utrecht University, The Netherlands Esther Hagen-Plantinga, PhD. DVM. MSc. August 2013
8.      Nick Cave BVSc, MVSc, MSCVSc, Home prepared diets. DACVN Institute of Veterinary, Animal, and Biomedical Sciences Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, http://oldwebsite.anzcvs.org.au/samedicine_assets/documents/2009%20sam%20proceedings/acvsc%202009%20cave%20home%20prepared%20diets.pdf
9.      Mark G. Knize, Cynthia P. Salmon, James S. Felton, Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine carcinogens in commercial pet foods. Mutation Research 539 (2003), 195–201
10.   D. M. Raditic, R. L. Remillard and K. C. Tater, ELISA testing for common food antigens in four dry dog foods used in dietary elimination trials. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 95 (2011), 90–97, DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01016.x  
11.   R. Ricci, A. Granato, M. Vascellari, M. Boscarato, C. Palagiano, I. Andrighetto, M. Diez & F. Mutinelli, Identification of undeclared sources of animal origin in canine dry foods used in dietary elimination trials. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 97 (2013) 32–38, DOI: 10.1111
12.   Ricci, R.; Berlanda, M.; Tenti, S.; Bailoni, L., Study of the chemical and nutritional characteristics of commercial dog foods used as elimination diet for the diagnosis of canine food allergy. Italian Journal of Animal Science (2009) 8, 328–330.
13.   Jeong-hun Kang, Fusao Kondo, Determination of bisphenol A in canned pet foods. Research in Veterinary Science (2002) 73, 177–182, doi:10.1016/S0034-5288(02)00102-9
14.   Charlotte H. Edinboro, DVM, PhD; J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, VetMB, MS, DACVIM; Evan Janovitz, DVM, PhD, DACVP; H. Leon Thacker, DVM, PhD, DACVP; Larry T. Glickman, VMD, DrPH, Epidemiologic study of relationships between consumption of commercial canned food and risk of hyperthyroidism in cats. JAVMA (2004), 224 (6)
 


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