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January 20, 2017

吐毛球嗎?可能是貓氣喘


Another Furball? It Might Be Feline Asthma
吐毛球嗎?可能是貓氣喘

Last Updated on Sunday, January 24, 2016 07:11 PM
Published on Tuesday, September 28, 2010 01:40 PM
Written by Andrea Tasi, VMD
 
最近更新:2016年1月24日
原始刊出日:2010年9月28日
作者:獸醫安德莉亞.蔡(Andrea Tsai, VMD)
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/health/another-furball-it-might-be-feline-asthma
 
Has your cat been coughing? Watch the video below and you may recognize that sound. Many people assume that the cat is trying to cough up a hairball and don't realize that their cat could have asthma. Untreated, asthma can progress and even be fatal. But, like human asthmatics, cats can be treated and the disease can be managed.
 
你的貓有咳嗽的問題嗎?以下的影片可能有你熟悉的聲音。許多人以為貓是想要吐出毛球,沒有想到其實是氣喘。氣喘如果沒有加以治療,會逐漸惡化甚至致命。但是跟人類氣喘一樣,貓的氣喘也可以治療,獲得控制。
 
譯註:想要看影片者請點原文出處連結。
 
It is estimated that about 1% of cats suffer from asthma.¹ Siamese, Burmese and other Oriental breeds show a greater incidence, but any breed can have asthma.² It usually first occurs in young to middle-aged cats between the ages of two and eight.³ It is widely recognized that asthma attacks can be triggered by allergens in the environment such as pollens, dust, smoke, fumes, mold, fragrances and aerosols. Heat, cold, stress and exertion can also trigger attacks.⁴
 
根據估計大約有百分之一的貓有氣喘(註1)。暹羅貓、緬甸貓和其他東方血統的貓氣喘比例高出很多,不過任何品種的貓都可能有氣喘(註2)。第一次出現氣喘的,通常是年紀介於二到八歲的年輕到中年貓(註3)。目前已被接受的廣泛認知是環境的過敏原引起氣喘發作,例如花粉、灰塵、煙霧、物體燃燒時產生的氣體、霉菌、香味和空氣中的塵埃粒子。冷、熱、壓力和用力也可能引發氣喘(註4)。
 
What is Feline Asthma?
 
什麼是貓科氣喘?
 
Feline asthma is a disorder of the lower airways, called bronchi and bronchioles, in which inflammation causes increased production of mucus, spasms of the airways and difficulty moving air out of the airways. It is considered to be an immune-mediated condition, which means that the inflammation is triggered by some allergic or over-active response of the cat's own immune system.⁵
 
貓科氣喘是一種下呼吸道失調,下呼吸道被稱為支氣管和細支氣管。下呼吸道發炎導致粘液增生,呼吸道痙攣,無法排出氣體。貓氣喘被視為一種免疫媒介的狀況,也就是說是貓自身免疫系統的某種過敏或過度活躍的反應,啟動發炎症狀(註5)。
 
What are the Symptoms of Feline Asthma?
 
貓氣喘的症狀?
 
Different cats may be affected in different ways, but the most common symptom is a wheezing or gagging cough, often called a hairball-type cough. In my professional experience however, hairballs do not cause coughing, as they are gastrointestinal and not respiratory in origin. Hairballs can cause retching, gagging and vomiting. With an asthmatic cough, most cats will stretch their necks out, get in a hunkered down posture and then cough in either a dry or moist sounding fashion. They may stick their tongues out a bit when coughing. Often it sounds and seems as if they are coughing some mucus up and then swallowing it.
 
不同的貓有不同的氣喘反應,但最常見的症狀是喘氣或呼吸困難式的咳嗽,常被稱為吐毛球咳嗽。不過就我個人的專業經驗,毛球並不會造成咳嗽,因為毛球的起源點是在腸胃道而不是呼吸道。毛球會造成乾嘔、呼吸吃力和嘔吐。因為氣喘而咳嗽時,大部分的貓會伸長脖子,身體呈母雞蹲的姿勢,咳嗽的聲音聽起來可能是乾咳也可能有粘液。咳嗽時可能舌尖外露。通常聽起來好像是要咳出粘液,然後又吞回去。
 
Other symptoms may include decreased activity, becoming winded by normal activity, increased rate and effort of breathing and even open-mouth breathing in severely affected patients who are having trouble moving air out of their lungs.
 
其他症狀包括活動力降低、進行正常活動時會喘氣、呼吸急促而且費力,嚴重的病患甚至會張口呼吸,因為無法排出肺部空氣。
 
Feline asthma in its most severe form can cause death by asphyxiation: the cat simply can't breathe.
 
最嚴重的氣喘發作是窒息而死,因為無法呼吸。
 
How is Feline Asthma Diagnosed?
 
如何診斷氣喘?
 
A cat presenting with a history of coughing, wheezing and/or respiratory difficulty will usually need the following tests to determine what is going on:⁶
 
當貓出現持續一段時間的咳嗽、喘氣以及/或者呼吸困難時,通常會需要進行以下檢驗以瞭解原因(註6)。
 
  • A thorough physical examination, including listening carefully to the lungs and heart.
  • Chest radiographs, commonly known as x-rays. These help rule out other causes of respiratory symptoms like heart enlargement, fluid in or around the lungs, tumors or pneumonia. Many cats with feline asthma have prominent airways and hyperinflated lungs, which means too much air is trapped in the lungs. It is important to note that cats can be severely asthmatic and have normal chest radiographs.⁷
  • A complete blood count: a blood test which looks at red and white blood cell numbers and helps determine if a patient is responding to inflammation or infection. Many cats with feline asthma have an increased number of eosinophils, a white blood cell type that responds to allergic and parasitic inflammation.
  • A heartworm test. Heartworm disease can mimic the symptoms of feline asthma.
  • A fecal test for intestinal parasites. Some intestinal parasites have life stages that migrate through the lungs and can cause inflammation and respiratory symptoms.
 
  • 徹底的身體檢查,包括仔細聽肺和心臟的聲音。
  • 胸部X光,幫助排除造成呼吸道症狀的其他原因,例如心臟肥大、肺內部或週圍有液體、腫瘤或是肺炎。許多有氣喘的貓會呼吸道腫大,或是肺部過度膨脹,表示空氣被困在肺部出不去。要注意的是,嚴重氣喘的貓可能胸腔X光片看起來是正常的(註7)。
  • 全套血檢:包括驗紅血球和白血球,可以幫助離釐清病患是發炎還是細菌感染。許多氣喘貓的嗜酸性粒细胞會升高,這是一種白血球,偏高可能是因為過敏或是寄生蟲造成發炎。
  • 檢查有無心絲蟲,因為貓得到心絲蟲的症狀和氣喘很接近。
  • 糞便檢查以確定有無腸道寄生蟲。有些腸道寄生蟲有不同的生命階段,並且會進入肺部,造成發炎和呼吸道症狀。
 
In general, the diagnosis of asthma is made by ruling out other causes of coughing and respiratory difficulty, as there is no one test that determines with 100% assurance that a cat has asthma or not.⁸
 
基本上,氣喘的確診是藉由排除其他造成咳嗽和呼吸困難的原因來達成,因為沒有一項檢驗可以百分之百的確認貓有無氣喘(註8)。
 
How is Feline Asthma Treated?
 
如何治療氣喘?
 
Conventional medical treatment of feline asthma is based upon two main drug types:⁹
 
傳統上治療氣喘主要使用兩種藥物(註9):
 
  • Corticosteroids: This class of drugs is anti-inflammatory in nature. Oral prednisone or prednisolone, and/or inhaled forms of corticosteroids are used to reduce the inflammation in the airways. Side effects of corticosteroids can include increased thirst and urination, increased appetite, weight gain, diabetes, lowered resistance to infection, and even behavioral changes.
 
皮質類固醇:這類藥物本質是對抗發炎。口服強的松(prednisone) 或是去氫可體醇錠(prednisolone),以及/或者吸入式的皮質類固醇,可以緩解呼吸道發炎。皮質類固醇的副作用包括口渴和多尿、食慾旺盛、體重增加、糖尿病、抵抗細菌感染的抵抗力下降,甚至行為改變。
 
  • Bronchodilators: This class of drugs helps open up the airways. Both oral and inhaled forms of bronchodilators are used. Side effects are generally minimal with bronchodilators, but these drugs should never be used alone, as that can actually worsen the condition. Special inhalant masks are available for cats to administer these medications.
 
氣管擴張劑:這類藥物是幫助打開呼吸道。有口服和吸入式兩種。副作用很少,但氣管擴張劑絕對不能單獨使用,因為可能加重病情。有貓專用的吸入器以使用此類藥物。
 
  • Several other drugs, such as antihistamines and anti-leukotrienes, are also used by some veterinarians.¹⁰ Holistic veterinarians may use alternative medical therapies to treat some asthmatic cats.
 
其他數種藥物,例如抗組織胺藥物和anti-leukotrienes(找不到中文名)也會被一些獸醫拿來治療貓氣喘(註10)。整體療法獸醫則可能會採取替代療法。
 
 If a cat is in an emergency situation in a veterinary clinic, oxygen therapy will also be used.
 
如果貓在獸醫院時氣喘發作,也可以採取氧氣療法。
 
How Does Diet Relate to Feline Asthma?
 
食物和貓氣喘有什麼關係?
 
In over two decades of feline practice, I have attended many continuing education seminars on feline asthma and rarely heard diet discussed as a potential cause or trigger for the condition.
 
在我超過二十年的貓醫療實務經驗中,參加過許多貓氣喘的教育課程,幾乎沒有任何課程討論過食物可能是引發氣喘的潛在原因。
 
However, I have had several clients who, on their own initiative, changed what they fed their cats and found that the symptoms of asthma were either greatly reduced or eliminated. What was the change they all made? They removed all dry food and all grain-based products from their cat's diet.
 
然而到目前為止我有幾位貓主人,自行改變貓食後,發現氣喘的症狀大有改善,甚至完全消除。這些食物改變的共同點是什麼?就是他們全部停餵乾飼料,以及含有穀物的貓食。
 
Most did this by simply switching to grain-free canned cat foods. Some used balanced commercially prepared or home-made grain-free, raw meat cat foods, either as the only food fed or in combination with some grain-free canned foods. After observing this effect, I incorporated diet changes into my case management of cats with asthma. I began to see many cases where my patients no longer needed medication — or much reduced doses — to control their asthma symptoms. It is important to note that not all cases of asthma will improve with the elimination of dry food and grains. But it is worth considering this change as a much less intrusive method of reducing or controlling symptoms. I have never observed a worsening of a cat's asthma from a gradual and nutritionally balanced diet change.
 
大部分的貓主人只是單純的改餵無穀貓罐頭。有一些使用營養均衡的商業或自製生肉,有的只餵生肉,也有些是餵生肉搭配無穀罐頭。在觀察改食的影響後,我在治療貓氣喘時也開始採用改食策略。有許多病患不再需要使用藥物,或是劑量大大減少。不過要注意的是,並非所有氣喘貓在停餵乾飼料和穀物後症狀都會改善。但是改食值得一試,考量到這是一個遠遠較不侵入式的改變,達到症狀減輕或控制。在逐漸改吃營養均衡的食物後,我倒是沒有見過氣喘症狀加重的貓病患。
 
Why does this diet change help some cats? It is my opinion that the processed and fractionated grain products in many cat foods are strong triggers for allergic or overactive inflammatory responses in some cats. Remove these triggers, and these cats get better or are even cured.
 
為什麼改食會對一些貓有幫助?就我個人意見,應該是許多貓食中含有加工過的穀物特定部位,啟動了過敏反應,或是讓某些貓的發炎反應過度活躍。移除這些啟動因子後,這些貓的狀況獲得改善,甚至痊癒。
 
譯註:
本文中穀物特定部位的原文是 fractionated grain products。Fractionate這個字是分割成數個部位的意思。我覺得應該是指穀物先被分割成不同部位,取走最有經濟價值的之後,其餘比較沒有價值的就拿去做動物飼料,我想本文作者用fractionated這個字實在是太客氣了。動物飼料最初是拿來餵經濟動物的,而經濟動物大多是吃草的,mind you.
 
If you have an asthmatic cat on medication and are interested in this approach, you must do this in consultation with your veterinarian. Do not, under any circumstances, simply stop giving your cat his/her medications.
 
如果你有正在服用藥物的氣喘貓,而且你對改食有興趣,在改變之前一定要先跟你的獸醫討論。在任何情況下,都不要擅自停藥。
 
If your cat is on high doses of corticosteroid drugs, it is also important to remember that these drugs can be suppressive to the immune system, rendering a cat more susceptible to infection. In these cases, I would advocate using either a canned or home cooked grain-free, nutritionally balanced food, not a raw diet.
 
如果你的貓正在服用高劑量的皮質類固醇,切記這類藥物可能會抑制免疫系統,貓可能會比較容易受細菌感染。這類的貓我建議餵罐頭或是自製無榖的、營養均衡的貓熟食,不要餵生肉。
 
(全文完)
 
譯註:

貓是天生的獵人,以捕捉老鼠小鳥兔子等為食物
如果把貓養到給生肉不吃,只願意吃乾飼料時,那是一件可悲的事
因為生肉才是貓天性會自然吃下去的食物
生食才是最棒最自然的貓食物
祝大家週末愉快
 
Dr. Andrea Tasi, VMD, has lived with many cats over the years. Currently, she and her husband have five wonderful cats that make up their "family:" Jimmy, Bug, Peggy Sue, Fifi and Monkey. It was Dr. Tasi's lecture on Nutrition and Raw Feeding that inspired Margaret Gates to begin feeding her cats a raw diet, found Feline Nutrition and put together the team to create the RawFedKitty Campaign. We will be forever grateful to her.
 
本文作者獸醫安德莉亞.蔡養貓多年。目前她和她的先生擁有五隻貓。蔡醫生的「營養和餵生肉」的演說影響瑪格麗特.蓋茲,她開始餵貓吃生肉,並且成立「貓科營養」網站。我們永遠感謝蔡醫生。
 
 1. Angie Hibbert, BVSc, MRCVS, "Therapy for Feline Asthma," European Society of Feline Medicine Pre-BSAVA Feline Symposium, April 7, 2010.
 2. Danièlle Gunn-Moore, BSc, BVM, PhD, MACVSc, MRCVS, "Chronic Coughing in Cats, Part I: Causes," University of Edinburgh, 2003.
 3. CM Venema and CC Patterson, "Feline Asthma: What's New and Where Might Clinical Practice Be Heading?Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 12, no. 9, September 2010, 681-692.
 4. Kathryn Hopper and James Perkins, "Potential Asthma Triggers" at fritzthebrave.com. The site is an approachable and comprehensive resource for feline asthma information.
 5. Danièlle Gunn-Moore, BSc, BVM, PhD, MACVSc, MRCVS, "Chronic Coughing in Cats, Part II: Diagnosis," University of Edinburgh, 2003.
 6. Danièlle Gunn-Moore, "Chronic Coughing in Cats, Part II: Diagnosis."
 7. KK Adamama-Moraitou, MN Patsikas and AF Koutinas, "Feline Lower Airway Disease: A Retrospective Study of 22 Naturally Occurring Cases from Greece," Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 6, no. 4, August 2004, 227-233.
 8. Danièlle Gunn-Moore, BSc, BVM, PhD, MACVSc, MRCVS, "Chronic Coughing in Cats, Part I: Causes," University of Edinburgh, 2003.
 9. Danièlle Gunn-Moore, BSc, BVM, PhD, MACVSc, MRCVS, "Chronic Coughing in Cats, Part III: Treatment," University of Edinburgh, 2003.
 10. Danièlle Gunn-Moore, "Chronic Coughing in Cats, Part III: Treatment."


 
 


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