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December 2, 2016

一個獸醫的觀點:獸醫安德莉亞.蔡


A Veterinarian's View: Andrea Tasi, VMD
一個獸醫的觀點:獸醫安德莉亞.蔡

Last Updated on Saturday, January 30, 2016 06:55 PM
Published on Wednesday, April 22, 2009 02:05 PM
Written by Andrea Tasi, VMD
 
最近更新:2016年1月30日
原始刊出日:2009年4月22日
作者:獸醫安德莉亞.蔡
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/health/a-vets-view-andrea-tasi-vmd
 
My name is Andrea Tasi, and my whole life revolves around cats and cat care. I graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in 1988 and was determined to go out into the world and help sick cats get better, and keep well cats well.
 
我的名字是安德莉亞.蔡,一生全繞著貓和照顧貓打轉。一九八八年我從賓州大學獸醫學院畢業後,便決心進入貓的世界,幫助生病的貓病情好轉,健康的貓繼續保持健康。
 
I have been in feline exclusive practice since 1991, first in Philadelphia and now in the Washington DC metropolitan area. I have watched cats become the most popular pet in our country, and been part of the evolution of feline specific veterinary medicine. Where cats were once "second class" citizens in the veterinary community, there is now an explosion of interest in feline medical care and increasing research into feline disease. Despite my intentions to try to help cats stay healthy or regain their health, I began to see many cats with chronic problems that I could not "fix". More and more of my feline patients were on one or more prescription drugs and/or diets to try to help them with the diseases I encountered day-to-day in feline practice: recurrent bladder (lower urinary) problems, obesity, diabetes, chronic vomiting and/or diarrhea, chronic constipation, asthma, skin and ear problems, to name a few. As I prescribed more and more drugs to try to help these cats, I ran into complications and side effects from the drugs themselves, or they often stopped working after a while. Prescription diets served me no better: often the cats wouldn't eat them and, even if they did, I did not see uniformly positive results.
 
從一九九一年開始我就只專注在貓的醫療照顧上,一開始是在費城,目前則是在華盛頓特區的都會區域。我看到貓成為美國最愛歡迎的家庭寵物,而且參與了貓科醫療的進化。在獸醫領域中,貓原本只是「二等」公民,而現在大家對貓科醫療的興趣以及疾病的研究都有爆炸性的成長。儘管原本只是單純的想努力幫助貓維持或是恢復健康,但我開始看到許多貓出現我無法「修復」的慢性病。越來越多的貓病患服用一種或以上的處方藥物,以及/或者吃處方食品,以控制疾病。在每天的執業中我見到了許多問題,以下只是一些例子:復發的膀胱(下泌尿道)問題、過度肥胖、糖尿病、長期嘔吐以及/或者腹瀉、長期便秘、氣喘、皮膚和耳朵問題。我開出越來越多的處方用藥,也開始見到藥物引起的併發症和副作用,或者在經過一些時間後這些藥物停止發揮作用。處方食品也沒有比較好,通常貓會不願意吃,或是就算吃了,我也沒有看到一致的正面效果。
 
One day, a client of mine who had a lovely old cat named Max, told me that she had switched Max's diet to raw food and all his chronic skin and ear problems went away within several weeks. Poor Max had been on cortisone-type drugs and prescription diets (prescribed by me!) for years, to no avail. My interest was sparked! I began to read about cat nutrition and cat diets and talk to people (veterinarians and pet owners) who had been feeding raw foods. I was amazed at what I was hearing, so decided to try a raw diet with my (then) new kitten, Bug. I had adopted Bug as a sickly (actually near death) and underweight 6 month old. I watched him blossom on the raw food diet, gaining healthy muscle mass weight but not becoming fat, developing a beautiful coat and clearing many of his chronic health problems without the need of conventional drugs. I am convinced that his raw diet was the foundation for his wonderful recovery.
 
我有一個客人有隻很可愛的老貓名叫麥斯,客人跟我說她把麥斯的食物轉成生肉後,幾週內麥斯長期的皮膚和耳朵問題不藥而癒了。有好多年的時間,麥斯服用皮質類固醇藥物,吃處方食品(而且是我開出的處方),但都沒有效果。我的興趣從這個時候開始被點燃了。我開始閱讀貓科營養和食物,開始和餵生肉的獸醫和飼主討論。我所聽到的訊息讓我很意外,所以決定餵我當時的新小貓霸哥吃生肉。我在霸哥六個月大時收養了他,當時他病到快要蒙主寵召。餵他吃生肉後我看著他成長茁壯,長出健康的肌肉但並沒有過胖,貓毛亮麗,許多長期的健康問題不再出現,而且是在完全沒有服用任何傳統藥物的情況之下。我相信他奇蹟似的重生基礎來自於生肉。
 
I now recommend raw diets to virtually all my clients, and have seen wonderful improvements in my patients' health. I will never go back to recommending or using processed pet foods.
 
我現在幾乎對所有的客戶推薦生肉,而且看到貓病患的健康有很大的改善。我絕對不會回頭推薦或使用加工寵物食品。
 
Why Not Just Use Dry and Canned Cat Foods?
為什麼不餵乾飼料和罐頭呢?
 
Grain based dry foods are the worst possible thing to feed a cat. Carnivorous predators were designed to eat a meat/whole prey (bones, organs, etc) diet, simple as that! Grain-free dry foods, while perhaps a bit "better" than "regular" dry foods, are extremely high in calories and do not have the water content of a flesh-based diet. Many cats, when on a dry food diet, do not drink enough water to keep their bodies optimally hydrated.
 
穀物為基礎的乾飼料是最糟的貓食。肉食動物天生要吃的食物是肉/完整的獵物(骨頭、內臟等等),就是這麼簡單。無穀乾飼料或許有比「一般」乾飼料「好上」那麼一些些,但熱量極高而且沒有新鮮食物所含有的水分。很多吃乾飼料的貓沒有喝下足夠的水分,以維持身體最佳的含水量。
 
Canned foods are better than dry, but all canned foods are high heat processed resulting in breakdown of many natural nutrients. These then need to be replaced with added supplements (all the chemical sounding ingredients on your canned food label tend to be these replaced nutrients). Many, but not all, canned foods also contain grain based ingredients, which can be triggers for a variety of health issues.
 
罐頭比乾飼料好,但所有的罐頭都有經過高溫處理,因此許多天然的養分被高溫破壞,所以需要補充營養品(包裝上那些化學字眼都是補充養分流失的營養品)。許多(不是全部)罐頭食物也含有穀物食材,穀物是製造許多健康問題的禍源。
 
Are Raw Diets "Safe?"
生肉餐「安全」嗎?
 
First, we can ask ourselves if commercial pet food is safe? Numerous pet food recalls have occurred over the past few years and many pets have died from eating commercial pet foods contaminated with melamine and other toxins. Some pet food recalls have involved Salmonella found in dry food. Believing that mass produced foods are uniformly "safe" is a big leap of faith, in my opinion.
 
首先我們要自問的是商業寵物食品安全嗎?過去幾年有多起寵物食品召回事件,許多寵物死亡是因為吃下含有三聚氰胺和其他毒素的寵物食品。有一些乾飼料被召回是因為含有沙門氏菌。相信大量製造的食品都是「安全的」,是一個沒有根據的信仰,就我個人觀點看來。
 
Second, we can look at the reality of how a cat's anatomy and physiology were designed to eat and digest raw meat. Cats have a more acid stomach pH and a shorter gastrointestinal tract, making them less vulnerable to many types of food-borne bacteria. I remind my clients that cats lick their bottoms every day, and do just fine!
 
再來我們要看的是貓的身體結構是如何被設計來食用和消化生肉。貓有比較酸的胃部酸醶值,以及比較短的消化道,所以比較不會受到許多食物細菌的影響。我跟我的客戶說貓每天都會舔自己的肛門,也都沒事啊。
 
Third, it is not difficult to create balanced diets that are safe from a nutritional perspective. Using a variety of recipes and meat sources is the best way to ensure that your cat gets all the nutrition she needs.
 
第三點,就營養的觀點,要製造均衡而且安全的食物並不困難。使用不同的食譜和肉源,是確保貓能夠得到所需營養的最好方式。
 
譯註:
這位獸醫說使用不同的食譜和肉源,可以確保貓能夠得到所需的營養。也曾聽聞另一位台灣獸醫說就算使用不同的食譜和肉源,也不能確保貓能夠得到所需營養。本文獸醫有自製生肉餵貓的經驗,台灣那位獸醫並沒有。我們該聽哪一位獸醫的意見?我不明白,沒有實際經驗的經驗,給人建議的根據從何而來?我不明白為什麼有些獸醫明明有飼主是餵生肉,而且也有好成果,為什麼這些獸醫還是不建議吃生肉?這些獸醫知不知道其實台灣也有品質很好的人道飼養動物?這些獸醫知不知道這些好品質的肉在一般超市是買不到的?這些獸醫知不知道其實台灣也有商業生食品牌,而且品質比貴得要命的巔峰罐頭還要好?
 
Isn't It Very Complicated to Feed Raw Food?
餵生肉不是很複雜嗎?
 
Feeding raw food can be simple! The easiest way to begin is to use pre-prepared frozen raw food diets such as Bravo, Aunt Jeni's, Primal, and Feline's Pride (to name a few). Making homemade food is not difficult either. The easiest way to begin is to use a powdered premix like Instincts-TC® that turns meat and liver in to a complete and balanced diet. One can then "graduate" to using recipes that require adding several supplement items like taurine, fatty acids, etc.
 
餵生肉可以很簡單!最簡單的方式是買商業冷凍生肉餐。自製貓食也不難。最容易下手的方式是使用預拌粉,例如 Instincts-TC®,只要加入肉和肝臟就是營養完整而且均衡的生肉餐。接下來你就可以走上完全自製之路,使用需要添加營養品的自製食譜,例如牛磺酸和脂肪酸等等。
 
The most common problems my clients have is that they try to transition too fast, and that they forget to defrost food in advance so it is ready for feeding.
 
我的客戶最常出現的問題是轉食太快,以及忘記事先解凍生肉。
 
Why Do So Many Veterinarians Caution Against Raw Diets?
為什麼這麼多獸醫不贊成餵生肉?
 
Veterinarians actually receive very little training in nutrition. In my 4 years of veterinary school, I had one class, one semester long, on nutrition. Most of this course focused on which prescription diet to recommend for which disease and why. For well pets, I was taught to recommend "Pick one dry food and stick with it." A major pet food manufacturer supplied free pet food to veterinary students, and free prescription diets to the University's veterinary hospital for use with hospitalized animals. Is it any wonder that most vets come out of school recommending that manufacturer's products? We were cautioned that it was "complicated" and "risky" for owners to make their own pet food, and that raw meat was full of harmful bacteria and parasites and would sicken animals, and possibly their owners. As I began to become interested in raw foods and spoke with veterinarians who had been recommending them for years, I was happily surprised to find that raw-food related health problems were few and far between, but that the benefits were amazing!

獸醫接受的營養學訓練很少。在我就讀獸醫學院的四年當中,我只有修過一堂營養學課程,時間是一個學期。這種課程的重點大多是放在當動物生病時,應該要餵哪一種處方食品。就身體健康的貓而言,我受到的教育是「選定一種乾飼料然後固定的吃」。大型寵物食品公司提供免費的寵物食品給獸醫學生,也提供免費的處方食品給獸醫學院附屬動物醫院的住院動物食用。所以獸醫畢業後多數都推薦那家大型寵物食品公司的產品時,會很奇怪嗎?我們被告誡自製貓食是「複雜」而且「有風險」的;我們被教導生肉充滿有害的細菌和寄生蟲,不但會讓動物生病,甚至也會影響到主人。當我開始對餵生肉有興趣,而且和推薦生肉多年的獸醫聊過以後,我很開心也很意外的發現餵生肉所產生的健康問題很少,但好處卻是令人意外的多。
 
譯註:
看來獸醫在校修的營養學分只有一到二個是一件中外皆然的事。
 
What Cat Diseases May Be Helped With Raw Food Diets?
生肉餐可能對哪些貓病有幫助?
 
I have seen diabetes, asthma, lower urinary tract (bladder) problems, chronic vomiting and/or diarrhea (inflammatory bowel disease-type symptoms), skin and ear problems and other health issues either markedly improve or completely resolve when raw diets were introduced. Every cat will respond in their own way, but I now view real, fresh, raw food as the "best medicine" for many of my patients.
 
我曾經見過得到糖尿病、氣喘、下泌尿道(膀胱)問題、長期嘔吐以及/或者腹瀉(炎症性腸病的症狀)、皮膚和耳朵問題以及其他健康問題的貓,在開始吃生肉之後出現兩種情況:有顯著的改善或是根本就完全恢復健康。每一隻貓吃生肉後的反應雖然不盡相同,但是從我在我許多貓病患身上所見到,我認為真正的新鮮生肉才是「最好的藥物」。
 
譯註:
每次看到有人說不要餵生病的貓吃生肉時,我最想問的問題是:請問你自己有餵病貓吃生肉的經驗嗎?我想八成是沒有,不知道為什麼自己沒有過的經驗,可以這麼好心的提醒人家。我有餵病貓(慢性腎衰竭)吃生肉的經驗,我的貓在確診(當時bun七十左右,crea是七左右)後活了四年半,當中四年是吃生肉,在貓生最後半年才開始打皮下。如果沒有餵病貓吃生肉的人都可以好心的提醒別人不要餵病貓吃生肉,那我是不是更有資格可以好心的提醒你病貓才更需要吃生肉?病貓吃生肉最重要的注意事項是食物轉換過程可能產生的腸胃不適,所以重點是換食要慢慢來,而且要在貓的病情穩定後再開始慢慢轉食。聽到人家說想要餵病貓吃生肉,就急急的跳出來嚴厲反對,而且反對的還是你沒有自身經驗的事,這真的聽起來怪怪的。(當這個世界上有九成以上的人,都反對餵貓吃他們天生該吃的食物時,你知道這個世界病得有多重嗎?)
 
What Do I Feed My Own Cats?
我餵我的貓吃什麼?
 
I use a combination of homemade and pre-prepared frozen raw diets. When making homemade food I use several different recipes and vary my meat sources.  My youngest cats like pretty much anything I make, as they were raised on raw. Their favorite meat source is rabbit. My oldest cats love homemade food made with Instincts-TC powdered premix. This "all in one" powder, when mixed with meat and liver, makes a complete diet.
 
我餵自製貓生食以及商業生肉餐。自製貓食我會使用不同的食譜以及變化肉源。年紀最小的貓幾乎我做的生肉都吃,因為他們是吃生肉長大的,最喜歡的肉是兔子。年紀最大的貓喜歡吃我用Instincts-TC預拌粉做的貓食。這種把所有營養品先加在一起的預拌粉,只要加入肉和肝臟就是營養完整的食物。
 
Who Should Not Use Raw Diets?
不該吃生肉的貓?
 
I recommend avoiding raw meat based diets for cats that are on immunosuppressive medications like chemotherapy drugs, or higher doses of cortisone-type drugs like prednisolone. I also recommend that if anyone in the cat's household has a weakened immune system (HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs, etc.) that extra caution should be used or raw diets completely avoided. In these instances a homemade cooked diet would be an excellent substitute.
 
正在進行免疫系統抑制療程的貓,例如服用化療藥物,或是高劑量的皮質類固醇,我建議不要吃生肉餐。如果養貓人家中有免疫系統比較弱的人類(愛滋帶原者、正在進行化療、服用免疫系統抑制藥物等等),在餵生肉時要特別小心,或是完全不要餵。這類的家庭可以使用熟食食譜,也是很棒的替代選擇。
 
Dr. Andrea Tasi, VMD, has lived with many cats over the years. Currently, she and her husband have five wonderful cats that make up their "family:" Jimmy, Bug, Peggy Sue, Fifi and Monkey. It was Dr. Tasi's lecture on Nutrition and Raw Feeding that inspired Margaret Gates to begin feeding her cats a raw diet, found Feline Nutrition and put together the team to create the RawFedKitty Campaign. We will be forever grateful to her.

本文作者獸醫安德莉亞.蔡養貓多年。目前她和她的先生擁有五隻貓。蔡醫生的「營養和餵生肉」的演說影響瑪格麗特.蓋茲,她開始餵貓吃生肉,並且成立「貓科營養」網站。我們永遠感謝蔡醫生。


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