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食物過敏和食物不耐的區別


Food Allergies and Intolerances Explained
食物過敏和食物不耐的區別

Last Updated on Saturday, January 23, 2016 09:32 PM

Published on Sunday, January 01, 2012 04:15 PM
Written by Elisa Katz, DVM
 
最近更新:2016年1月23日
原始刊出日:2012年1月1日
作者:獸醫伊萊莎.卡茲(Elisa Katz, DVM)
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/health/is-it-a-food-allergy-or-intolerance
 

My cat almost always vomits after I feed her anything with beef in it. When I mentioned to a friend that I thought he was allergic to beef, she corrected me and said that vomiting was a sign of food intolerance, not a food allergy. Now I'm confused. What's the difference between the two? If they are two different things, what are the signs to look for in each case?
 
問:
只要我餵貓吃的食物中有牛肉,他就會吐出來。我跟一個朋友說我覺得我的貓對牛肉過敏,但是她糾正我,說吐出食物是食物不耐的症狀,不是食物過敏。我很困惑。這兩者之間有什麼區別呢?如果這是兩件不同的事,那麼個別的症狀為何?
 
Food allergy is a specific type of reaction by the body to an allergen, usually a protein in the food. It is defined as "an adverse reaction to a food or food additive with a proven immunologic basis."¹ This means that it must involve the immune system. In most cases, allergies involve a certain type of antibody called Immunoglobulin E. Food intolerance is "a non-immunologic adverse physiologic response to a food or food additive."² This means that intolerance does not involve the immune system. Intolerances involve metabolic effects which alter processes in the body, pharmacologic drug-like effects or toxic effects of offending ingredients.³
 
食物過敏是身體對一種過敏原產生的特定反應,過敏原通常是食物中的蛋白質。食物過敏被定義為「一種對食物或食品添加物的不良反應,已被基礎免疫學所證明」(註1)。這表示食物過敏和免疫系統有關。在大部分的病例中,過敏是因為體內對食物產生一種特定的抗體,即免疫球蛋白E。食物不耐是「生理對食物或食品添加物的一種非免疫的不良反應」(註2)。這表示食物不耐和免疫系統無關。食物不耐和新陳代謝的影響有關,體內運作被改變,不當的食材引起類似藥物造成的或是中毒的反應(註3)。
 
What makes it bit difficult to distinguish between the two is that vomiting can be a sign of either condition. With food allergy however, there will more than likely be signs outside of the gastrointestinal tract. You are likely to see things like itchiness, fur loss from licking, scabs from scratching, red bumps or irritated areas particularly on the face, ears, and abdomen. If your cat does not have any of these other signs and seems to vomit every time he eats the beef food, than he is more likely to have intolerance.
 
食物過敏和不耐的反應都是嘔吐,所以才會難以區分。不過如果是食物過敏,比較可能會出現腸胃道以外的症狀。可能會出現搔癢、舔毛造成的掉毛、抓癢造成的傷口、紅腫或發炎,尤其是出現在臉部、耳朵和腹部。如果你的貓沒有這些症狀,但好像每次吃下含有牛肉的食物就吐出來,那麼就比較有可能是食物不耐。
 
I would not recommend condemning beef from his diet however. When proteins are cooked, their structure is altered. This can be evidenced in the difference between a raw egg and a cooked egg or the different appearance and texture of raw versus cooked meat. This alteration in structure may make a non-allergenic raw protein become allergenic now that it is cooked.⁴ So, you may be able to feed him raw beef eventually.
 
不過我並不認為牛肉應該被譴責。當蛋白質被煮熟後,結構會改變。例如生蛋和熟蛋之間有明顯的差異,生肉和熟肉之間外觀和質地都不同。結構的改變可能會讓原本不會造成過敏的生蛋白質,因為煮熟後而變成過敏原(註4)。所以或許餵貓吃生牛肉並不會過敏。
 
To help determine what is truly going on with your cat, I strongly encourage you to seek advice from your veterinarian as there may be many other reasons why cats may vomit. I would also recommend taking a very good look at all of the ingredients in the food that you are feeding. What are the additives? Are there any artificial colors, vague ingredients such as "natural flavor," chemical preservatives such as BHA or BHT or undefined by-products? Is it a dry cat food with carbohydrates? Any one of these may be the culprit and not necessarily the beef.
 
想要知道你的貓到底為什麼嘔吐,我強烈建議你帶貓就醫,因為有許多其他的原因會造成貓嘔吐。我同時建議你仔細瞭解你所餵的貓食中的所有食材。有什麼添加物?有沒有任何其他的色素、曖昧不明的食材例如「天然調味料」、化學防腐劑例如BHA或是BHT、定義不明確的副產品?是含有碳水化合物的乾飼料嗎?這些都有可能是造成貓嘔吐的罪魁禍首,不見得是牛肉。
 
Once your veterinarian has ruled out other causes of vomiting, he or she may recommend an elimination diet. This means that you eliminate certain protein sources, which can include grains such as wheat and corn, for at least an eight week period. Most elimination diets consist of a somewhat novel protein source, i.e. one that your cat has not eaten before. You can easily accomplish this without using a prescription diet. I recommend either a gradual switch to a raw or partially raw diet or a high quality, grain-free canned diet. This is because most cats have some degree of intolerance to the high amount of carbohydrates in most of the commercial diets available, including most if not all prescription diets.
 
當你的獸醫排除其他造成嘔吐的原因後,他/她可能會推薦使用刪去法餵食。也就是先刪去某種蛋白質,通常是先從穀物下手,例如小麥或玉米,至少要餵八週。大部份的刪去法餵食含有一種你的貓沒有吃過的蛋白質。你可以很容易提供刪去法餵食,而不需要用到處方食品。我建議慢慢的轉吃生肉,或是部分生肉,品質好的無穀罐頭也可以。這是因為大部分的貓對大量的碳水化合物或多或少有食物不耐的反應。大部分的商業貓食含有大量的碳水化合物,如果不是全部至少有大部分的處方食品也是。
 
You will need to read ingredient labels thoroughly to ensure that there is no beef at all in the food and avoid any treats that mention beef or any vague ingredient that could be beef. For example, something worded as "animal digest" or "meat by-product." You must avoid the suspected allergen food for at least eight weeks to ensure it is out of the cat's system. If your cat stops vomiting completely, you can then either continue avoiding beef, or attempt to add it back in and see if the vomiting recurs.
 
你必須仔細閱讀食材列表,確定不含牛肉,還要避開任何含有牛肉的點心,或是措詞不明的食材,因為有可能是牛肉,例如「動物發酵液」或是「肉副產品」。至少有八週不要讓貓吃到你懷疑是造成過敏的食材,以確保食材排出貓的體內。如果你的貓完全不再嘔吐,你可以繼續避開牛肉,或是加一點點到食物中,觀察有沒有吐。
 
In any case, as you can see, food allergy and intolerance are much more complicated than they may first seem. However, with a little diligence and patience, you should be able to determine which it is that is afflicting your kitty.
 
不管怎麼說,食物過敏和食物不耐並不像表面上看起來那麼簡單。但是勤勞加上耐心,應該能夠幫助你找出貓嘔吐的原因。
 

週末愉快


Note: Feline Nutrition provides feline health and nutrition information as a public service. Diagnosis and treatment of specific conditions should always be in consultation with your own veterinarian. Feline Nutrition disclaims all warranties and liability related to the veterinary advice and information provided on this site.
 
免責聲明:Feline Nutrition (貓科營養) 基於公共服務的精神提供貓科健康和營養訊息。診斷或治療的行為應該是由你的獸醫進行。本網站所提供的任何獸醫建議和資訊,Feline Nutrition 不負任何責任。
 
Dr. Elisa Katz, DVM, is a graduate of Ohio State University and is the owner of Natural Pet Animal Hospital in Bourbonnais, Illinois. She practices holistic and integrative medicine focusing on proper diet and nutrition. Dr. Katz shares her home with four kitties and one dog.
 
本文作者獸醫伊萊莎。卡茲(Dr. Elisa Katz)畢業於美國俄亥俄州立大學(Ohio State University),目前在伊利諾州(Illinois)的 Bourbonnais 經營一家名為「自然的寵物動物醫院」(Natural Pet Animal Hospital)。她的執業是以整體和綜合醫學為主,重點在適當的食物和營養。卡茲醫生家中有四隻貓一隻狗。
 
  1. Stephen J Ettinger and Edward C Feldman, Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 4th ed, vol. 1, W.B. Saunders Co, 1995, 258-262.
  2. Ettinger and Feldman, 258-262.
  3. Larry P Tilley and Francis WK Smith, Jr, The 5-minute Veterinary Consult: Canine and Feline, 2nd ed, Lippincot Williams & Wilkins, 2000, 720-721.
  4. Victoria Emerton, Food Allergy and Intolerance: Current Issues and Concerns, no. 285, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000, 150-151.


 


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