首頁 »
November 18, 2016

如何安全的處理生肉


Safe Handling Practices for Raw Meat
如何安全的處理生肉

Last Updated on Sunday, January 24, 2016 07:40 PM
Published on Tuesday, June 01, 2010 12:29 PM
Written by Pat Puckett
 
最近更新:2016年1月24日
原始刊出日:2010年6月1日
作者:派特.帕卡 (Pat Puckett)
 
原文出處連結:http://feline-nutrition.org/health/whats-in-your-freezer-safe-handling-practices

 

One of the major concerns of people feeding a raw diet is safe food handling to protect the human family and our companion animals. Knowing the difference between spoilage and pathogenic bacteria as well as following temperature and time guidelines makes our decision to feed a raw diet easier. Much of the information provided in this article is directed at human safety — a standard also used by many people when feeding their companion animals. This information is from the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the USDA and other sites that rely on USDA and FDA guidelines.
 
餵生肉者的主要考量之一是安全的處理食物,以便保護家人和寵物。瞭解何謂腐壞以及病菌,同時遵守溫度和時間的保存原則,可以幫助我們在餵生肉時做出需要做的決定。本文提供的大部分資料是針對人類的安全使用生肉,餵寵物生肉的主人也可參照這些標準原則。資料來源是美國農業部的食品安全檢查局,以及其他以美國農業部和美國食品藥物管理局規章為依據的網站。
 
Sources of food contamination are almost as numerous and varied as the contaminants themselves. Bacteria and other infectious organisms are pervasive in the environment. Salmonella enters eggs directly from the hen. Bacteria, occasionally pathogenic, inhabit the surfaces of fruits and vegetables in the field. Molds and their toxic byproducts can develop in grains during unusually wet or dry growing seasons, damage and stress during harvesting or during improper storage. Seafood may become contaminated from agricultural and other runoff, as well as by sewage, microorganisms and toxins present in marine environments.
 
食物有數不清的不同污染源,污染物也是如此。細菌和其他具有傳染性的有機體無處不在。沙門氏菌可以從母雞身上直接進入雞蛋。細菌,有時候是病菌,生存在田野中水果蔬菜的表面。黴菌及其有毒的副產品會在穀物上滋生,例如生長季節異常潮濕或乾燥、收成過程的損壞和壓力,或是保存方式不當。海鮮受到的污染可能是來自養殖環境,或其他水流或污水中的微生物和有毒物質。
 
Many organisms that cause food borne illness in humans can be part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals without any adverse effects to the animal. Milk, eggs, seafood, poultry and meat from food-producing animals may become contaminated through contaminated feed, misuse of veterinary drugs or poor farming practices. This includes production and harvesting activities, or disposal of solid waste on land.
 
許多造成人類生病的食物中的有機體,可能是來自食用動物腸胃道中的正常細菌和微生物,雖然這些細菌和微生物對食用動物本身是無害的。來自食用動物的奶水、蛋、海鮮、家禽和肉,可能被污染的途徑包括食用被污染的飼料、濫用動物用藥以及不良的耕種或養殖方式,包括製造生產過程、收成過程,或是土地上固體廢棄物的處理方式。
 
譯註:食用動物指的是供人類食用的經濟動物。
 
Foods may become contaminated during processing through:
  • malfunctioning or improperly sanitized equipment,
  • misuse of cleaning materials,
  • rodent and insect infestations, and
  • improper storage.
 
食物在處理過程中可能被污染的途徑:
  • 功能不良或是不當的消毒設備
  • 不當的清潔用品
  • 囓齒動物和昆蟲肆虐
  • 保存不當
 
Foods may become contaminated in retail facilities and in the home through use of poor food handling practices, including time and temperature abuse and cross-contamination from other foods.
 
在零售商店或是家中,食物有可能因為處理不當而被污染,例如時間和溫度的控管不當,以及來自其他食物的交叉污染。
 
Spoilage bacteria are microorganisms too small to be seen without a microscope. They cause food to deteriorate and develop unpleasant odors, tastes and textures. These one-celled microorganisms can cause fruits and vegetables to get mushy and slimy or meat to develop a bad odor.¹
 
造成食物腐壞的微生物肉眼是看不見的,必須透過顯微鏡。微生物破壞食物,產生難聞的味道、口感和質地。這些單細胞有機體可能會讓蔬果發霉和軟爛,或是造成肉類發出臭味(註1)。
 
There are different spoilage bacteria and each reproduces at specific temperatures. Some can grow at the low temperatures in a refrigerator or freezer. Others grow well at room temperature and in the "Danger Zone" — temperatures between 40 and 140°F. Bacteria will grow anywhere they have access to nutrients and water. Under the correct conditions, spoilage bacteria reproduce rapidly. In some cases they can double their numbers in as little as 20 minutes.²
 
不同的細菌會造成食物腐壞,而且不同的細菌滋生的溫度不盡相同。有些可以在冰箱或是冷凍室中的低溫生長。其他的則是可以在室溫以及危險溫度生長。危險溫度指的是介於攝氏4.4到60度之間的環境。任何養分和水都會滋生細菌。在正常的條件下,腐壞細菌滋生快速。有時候甚至在二十分鏡之內就呈倍數成長(註2)。
 
Pathogenic bacteria can cause illness in humans and possibly in pets that are already ill. They grow rapidly in the Danger Zone and do not generally affect the taste, smell or appearance of food. Food that is left too long at unsafe temperatures can be dangerous to eat but smell and look just fine. E. coli O157:H7, campylobacter, listeria and salmonella are examples of pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria are sometimes already present in the food when purchased or are introduced through cross-contamination.³
 
病菌會造成人類生病,已經生病的動物也有可能因為感染病菌而生病。病菌在危險溫度中生長快速,而且基本上不會影響食物的口感、味道或外觀。食物如果置放在不安全的溫度中太久,可能會造成危險,儘管味道和外觀看起來並無異狀。這些病菌包括出血性大腸桿菌0157:H7型、曲狀桿菌、李斯特菌和沙門氏菌。有時候當你購買食物時,這些病菌已在食物中,也有可能是買來以後的交叉污染(註3)。
 
Food constantly stored at 0°F will always be safe unless pathogenic bacteria are already present. Only the quality suffers with lengthy freezer storage. Freezing keeps food safe by slowing the movement of molecules, causing microbes to enter a dormant stage. Freezing preserves food for extended periods because it prevents the growth of microorganisms that cause both food spoilage and food borne illness. Freezing to 0°F inactivates any microbes — bacteria, yeasts and molds — present in food. Once thawed, however, these microbes can again become active, multiplying under the right conditions to levels that can lead to food borne illness. As they will then grow at about the same rate as microorganisms on fresh food, you must handle thawed items as you would any perishable food. Thawing food products only to the extent that allows for separation into smaller quantities to be re-frozen is safe. Once the product reaches 40°F, however, bacteria will grow. Water lost in the thawing process will result in less moisture in the product, so it is important to re-freeze promptly to retain quality. Do not confuse the moisture in the product with any ice formed in freezing.
 
食物固定的貯存在攝氏零下十八度時是安全的,除非病菌已經存在。長期冷凍唯一影響的是食物品質。冷凍保持食物安全,因為減緩分子及微生物的移動,使其進入休眠狀況。冷凍能夠長期保存食物,因為阻止微生物生長。微生物是造成食物腐壞,以及吃下腐壞食物而生病的原因。攝氏零下十八度會讓任何微生物進入不活躍的狀態,食物中的細菌、酵母和霉菌都是微生物。然而一旦解凍,這些微生物會開始活躍滋生;而且在環境條件許可的狀況下,滋生的數目會達到造成食物腐壞進而讓身體生病的程度。這些細菌的成長速度和新鮮食物上的有機體一樣快速,所以在處理解凍的食物時,要和處理任何易腐食物時一樣小心。如果食物解凍後需要再次冷凍,那麼在把食物解凍到可以分成小分量時,就把你不需要用到的分量立刻放回冷凍庫。一旦食物溫度降到攝氏四度,細菌就會開始滋生。解凍過程水分流失,降低食物含水量,所以立刻把食物重新放回冷凍是很重要的。冷凍時產生的冰並不是來自食物本身的水分。
 
Freshness and quality at the time of freezing affect the condition of frozen foods. If frozen at peak quality, foods taste better than foods frozen near the end of their useful life. So, freeze items you won't use quickly sooner rather than later. Store all foods at 0°F or lower to retain vitamin content, color, flavor and texture.
 
尚未冷凍時食物的新鮮度和品質,會影響冷凍後的狀況。如果是在食物品質最好的時候冷凍,食物的口感會比食物效期將至才去冷凍來得好。所以不會立刻用到的食物,早一點拿去凍,會比晚一點拿去凍理想。把食物貯存在攝氏零下十八度或甚至更低,可以保留維他命、色澤、風味和質地。
 
The freezing process itself does not destroy nutrients. In meat and poultry products, there are little changes in nutrient value during freezer storage. But enzyme activity can lead to the deterioration of food quality. Enzymes present in animals, vegetables and fruit promote chemical reactions, such as ripening. Freezing only slows the enzyme activity — it does not halt these reactions which continue after harvesting. Enzyme activity does not harm frozen meats or fish.⁴
 
冷凍過程並不會破壞養分。在冷凍的狀態下,肉和家禽類產品的營養價值改變很小。但是酵素的活性可能會造成食物品質下降。動物和蔬果中的酵素會促使化學反應的產生,例如催熟。冷凍只是降低酵素活性,並不會讓收成後的化學反應暫停。酵素的活性不會對冷凍的肉或魚造成傷害(註4)。
 
Proper packaging helps maintain quality and prevents freezer burn. It is safe to freeze meat or poultry directly in its supermarket wrapping, but this type of wrap is permeable to air. Unless you will be using the food in a month or two, overwrap these packages as you would any food for long-term storage. Use airtight heavy-duty foil, freezer plastic wrap or freezer paper, or place the entire package inside a freezer plastic bag. It is not necessary to rinse meat and poultry before freezing. Freeze unopened vacuum packages "as is." If you notice that a package has accidentally been torn or opened while food is in the freezer, the food is still safe to use — just overwrap or re-wrap it.
 
適當的包裝可以維持食物品質並預防凍傷。直接用超市的包裝去冷凍肉和魚是安全的,但這種包裝方式會讓空氣滲入,除非你在一到兩個月之內會用到這個食物,否則最好是在原有包裝外再加一層包裝。使用能夠阻隔空氣的鋁箔紙、可冷凍的保鮮膜或是冷凍紙,或是把整包食物放入可以冷凍的塑膠袋。肉類和家禽在冷凍之前,不需要先沖洗。真空包裝的食物直接放入冷凍。如果冷凍櫃中的食物包裝破裂或是打開,依然可以安全使用,只要重新包裝即可。
 
Freezer burn does not make food unsafe, merely dry in spots. It appears as grayish-brown leathery spots and is caused by air reaching the surface of the food. You can cut freezer-burned portions away. Some may discard heavily freezer-burned foods for quality reasons.
 
凍傷並不會讓食物不安全,只是凍傷處是乾乾的,看起來像是灰灰的咖啡色皮質物,那是因為空氣接觸到食物表面。可以把凍傷處切掉不要用。如果是嚴重的凍傷,基於品質有些人會把整包食物都丟掉。
 
Color changes can occur in frozen foods. The bright red color of meat as purchased usually turns dark or pale brown depending on its variety. This may be caused by lack of oxygen, freezer burn or abnormally long storage. Freezing doesn't usually cause color changes in poultry. However, the bones and meat near them can become dark. Bone darkening results when pigment seeps through the porous bones of young poultry into the surrounding tissues when the meat is frozen and thawed.⁵
 
有些食物冷凍後顏色會改變。購買時呈現鮮紅色的肉,冷凍後通常顏色會變暗或是變成淺咖啡色,看肉的種類而定。造成顏色改變的原因可能是缺乏氧氣、凍傷或是冷凍貯存時間異常的久。冷凍通常不會造成家禽顏色改變。不過骨頭以及靠近骨頭的肉可能顏色會變暗。骨頭顏色變暗是因為在冷凍以及解凍時,骨中的顏色從骨頭的氣孔滲出,進入週圍的組織(註5)。
 
Because freezing keeps food safe almost indefinitely, recommended storage times are for quality only. Many freezing charts are available. Cryo-vac packaging can also extend the freezing life of products and is often not addressed in these charts.
 
冷凍幾乎可以無限期的安全保存食物,所以建議的貯存時間只是為了維持品質而已。有很多食物冷凍表可以參考。低溫真空包裝也可以延長食物的冷凍壽命,而且通常食物冷凍表沒有提到這一點。
 
譯註:
本段列舉的食物冷凍列表參考網站連結:https://whatscookingamerica.net/Information/FreezerChart.htm
我找到的中文食物冷凍列表參考連結:
http://www.ke.com.tw/new_page_43.htm
 
Never defrost foods in a garage, basement, car, dishwasher, plastic garbage bag, outdoors or on the porch. Do not leave food defrosting on the kitchen counter. These methods can leave your foods unsafe to eat. Flies and other pests pose potential contamination threats. Ambient temperatures can cause rapid thawing, moving the product quickly into the Danger Zone.
 
不要在以下的地方或方式解凍食物:車庫、地下室、汽車、洗碗機、塑膠垃圾袋、戶外或是房屋前廊。不要把食物放在廚房的流理台上解凍。這些方式會讓食物不安全。蒼蠅和其他害蟲也可能會污染食物。週圍的環境可能會加快解凍速度,讓食物很快的進入危險溫度。
 
There are two safe ways to defrost food: in the refrigerator or in cold water. It's best to plan ahead for slow, safe thawing in the refrigerator. Small items may defrost overnight; most foods require a day or two. Large items like turkeys may take longer, approximately one day for each 5 pounds of weight.
 
有兩個方式可以安全的解凍食物:放在冰箱或是冷水中。最好的方式是事先做好計畫,在冰箱冷藏解凍。小包的食物放一夜就可以解凍;大部分的食物則是需要一到兩天。比較大的食物例如火雞可能需要的時間更久,大概一天可以解凍的重量是2.3 公斤。
 
For faster defrosting, place food in a leak proof plastic bag and immerse it in cold water. If the bag leaks, bacteria from the air or surrounding environment could be introduced into the food. Tissues can also absorb water like a sponge, resulting in a watery product. Check the water frequently to be sure it stays cold. Change the water every 30 minutes. After thawing, serve and refrigerate any leftover product immediately.⁶
 
如果要快速解凍,把食物包在不會漏水的塑膠袋內,然後放入冷水中。如果袋子破掉,空氣或環境中的細菌可能會接觸食物。食物的組織也有可能會吸水,像海綿那樣,食物因此變成水水的。不時的檢查水溫以確保有維持在冷水的狀況。每三十分鐘換一次水。解凍食用後,沒有吃完的食物要立刻放回冰箱(註6)。
 
Microwave-defrosting food is not recommended because some areas of the food may become warm and begin to cook. Never cook bones that will be served to companion animals. They will become brittle and dangerous as well as losing most of their nutrient value.⁷
 
不建議微波解凍食物,因為這麼做食物的某些部分可能會變成溫溫的,開始進入煮熟的狀態。如果要餵動物,骨頭絕對不可以烹煮。因為煮過以後骨頭會易碎而造成危險,而且大部分的養分也會因為煮熟而流失(註7)。
 
To determine the safety of foods when the power has been interrupted, check their condition and temperature. If food is partly frozen, still has ice crystals or is as cold as if it were in a refrigerator (40°F), it is safe to refreeze or use. It's not necessary to cook raw foods before refreezing. Avoid foods that have been warmer than 40°F for more than two hours or have been contaminated by raw meat/poultry juices.
 
停電時,決定食物是否依然可以安全食用,要先檢查食物的狀態和溫度。如果食物處於部分冷凍的狀態,食物本身有冰晶,或是如同置放在冰箱(攝氏四度)時的狀態,那可以安全的繼續冷凍或食用。沒有必要在凍回去之前把食物煮熟。食物處於攝氏四度的時間如果超過兩個小時,或是有被生肉的肉汁污染到的食物,都要避免食用。
 
Recommended reading for more information and reference:
 
USDA Food Safety Common Questions
USDA Food Safety and Freezing
 
本文作者建議參考以上兩個連結的資料,但是連結都已失效,所以就不貼出來了。
 
譯者題外話:

我發現用大新這台絞肉機絞蕃茄超好用的。新鮮的蕃茄切片後放入絞肉機絞過就變成蕃茄汁,不需先用熱水川燙去皮,因為皮和蒂頭較硬的部位都會留在機器裏面,只要絞完後拆下來用水沖一沖就好了。蕃茄汁可以煮湯麵、炒乾麵或是做蕃茄燉飯,都很好吃。我廚藝不佳,只會做這三種XD。祝各位週末愉快。
 
 
Pat Puckett is the founder of the SoCalBARF Buyer's Group, one of the largest in the US. An educational group interested in fostering and promoting the health of companion animals through raw diets, they accept all forms of raw feeding as chosen by their members. Besides providing bulk raw meat purchasing to their members, they offer educational seminars on animal health and nutrition.
 
本文作者派特.帕卡(Pat Puckett)是美國一個名為 SoCalBARF的社團創辦人。那是一個以生肉餵養夥伴動物的社團,接受會員選擇的任何生食餵養方式。除了提供會員大量肉品採購以外,還舉辦教育飼主的動物健康和營養研討會。
 
 
  1. "Fundamental Food Microbiology," USDA Publication, June 2014.
  2. "General Hygiene Principles for Meat Handling, " Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  3. "Be Smart, Keep Foods Apart," U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  4. "Freezing and Food Safety," U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  5. "The Color of Meat and Poultry," U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  6. "The Big Thaw — Safe Defrosting Methods for Consumers," U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  7. Dr. Bruce Syme, BVSc (Hons), "Feeding Raw Bones to Cats and Dogs."


 


紐西蘭獸醫 vs 英國IBD貓←上一篇 │首頁│ 下一篇→食物過敏和食物不耐的區別