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February 4, 2016

Anne 的無骨食譜

Recipe WITHOUT Real Bones 
(really not recommended for long term use - using real bone is better) 

(不建議長期使用 – 用真正的骨頭比較好)

原文出處連結: http://www.catnutrition.org/recipes.html

VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: The recipe that follows is inferior to the recipe above. Why? Because it does not contain real bone and relies on an isolated calcium supplement. Cats should eat REAL bone. But if you do not yet have a grinder, this recipe will suffice for short-term use. It also has some gelatin in it to make up for missing cartilage. Please do not use this recipe indefinitely.

非常重要的重點: 無骨食譜比不上帶骨食譜. 為什麼? 因為不含真正的骨頭, 只依賴單一的鈣質補充品. 貓應該吃真正的骨頭. 但是如果你還沒有絞肉機, 這份無骨食譜供短期使用綽綽有餘. 本食譜含有吉利丁以補充軟骨. 請勿長期使用此無骨食譜.

1400 grams [3 lbs] raw muscle meat  (i.e., chicken thighs and drumsticks meat. leaving about half the skin)

1400公克生肉 (雞大腿和小腿, 除去一半的皮)
譯註: 據我所知美國的雞胸肉價格大約是雞腿肉的二到三倍, 作者可能是基於價錢的考量而選用腿肉. 我個人覺得可以腿肉和胸肉各用一半, 即各700公克, 也是可以的. 如果你想要用雞以外的肉, 建議用另一份食譜, 即原始的貓生肉餐食譜, 請點以下連結, 因為這份食譜的作者只有註明使用”去骨絞肉", 並沒有註明特定肉種, 所以只要是人類食用等級的生肉都可以用.

400 grams [14 oz] raw heart (chicken heart works well - if no heart is available, substitute with 4000 mg Taurine)

400公克生的心(雞心可, 如果沒有心, 用 4000 mg 的牛磺酸取代)

200 grams [7 oz] raw liver (chicken liver works well - if you can't find appropriate liver, you can substitute 40,000 IU of Vitamin A and 1600 IU of Vitamin D--but try to use real liver instead of substitutes)

200公克生的肝(雞肝可, 如果你找不到合適的肝,可以用 40,000 IU的維他命A以及1,600 IU 的維他命D取代 – 但最好是用真的肝)

NOTE: If you cannot find the heart or liver and decide to substitute with the Taurine/Vitamin A and D, then remember to REPLACE the missing amount of organ meat with the equivalent amount of muscle meat. In other words, if you cannot find heart, you add another 400 grams of the meat. If you can't find the liver, add another 200 grams of meat/bone.

注意: 如果你找不到心和肝, 決定用牛磺酸, 維他命A和D來取代, 記得要用同等重量的去骨肉取代肝和心的重量. 換句話說, 如果找不到心, 你必須再加入400公克的去骨肉, 如果找不到肝, 要另外加入200公克的肉.

16 oz [2 cups] water

2杯水 (一杯約250cc)

3.08 Tbsp (9.25 tsp) bonemeal (the kind intended for human consumption--not the type used for gardening)

3.08大匙 (=9又1/4茶匙)骨粉 (人食用等級, 非供園藝用)

2 tablespoons unflavored gelatin


4 raw egg yolks (use eggs from free-range, antibiotic-free chickens if you can)***

4個生蛋黃 (如果可以, 使用自由放養, 食用飼料沒有含抗生素的雞)

4 capsules raw glandular supplement, such as, for example, multigland supplement by Immoplex


譯註: 腺體不用也無所謂

4000 mg salmon oil (see note at bottom of recipe*)

4000 mg 鮭魚油(請見以下魚油補充說明)

800 IU Vitamin E ("dry E" works well)

800 IU 維他命E (乾的粉末狀態比較好用)

200 mg Vitamin B-50 complex (i.e., four capsules of B-50)

200mg 維他命B-50 (也就是四顆維他命B-50膠囊)
譯註: 維他命B包裝如果寫B-50表示一顆膠囊的容量是50mg, 如果寫B-100表示一顆膠囊100mg

1.5 tsp. Lite salt (with iodine) NOTE:  If you’re using whole ground rabbit from a supplier, check with the supplier to see if the thyroid gland is included.  If it is, skip the salt. 

譯註: 台塩的低鈉(減鈉)塩或是健康美味塩都可以.
(optional: 4 tsp. psyllium husk powder (8 tsp. if using whole psyllium husks; see note at bottom of recipe**)

(選用: 洋車前子粉, 如果你用的是以下連結這款, 每一份食譜的用量是4茶匙. http://tw.iherb.com/Source-Naturals-Psyllium-Husk-Powder-12-oz-340-g/1446?at=0
你也可以買以下這款, 但用量是每一份食譜8茶匙. http://tw.iherb.com/Yerba-Prima-Psyllium-Whole-Husks-Colon-Cleanser-12-oz-340-g/4795?at=0)

NOTE: If you will not be using the food immediately and freezing for more than a week or two, toss in 4000 mg of additional Taurine to make up for what may get lost during storage. It is also not a bad idea to sprinkle extra Taurine from a capsule on the food as you're serving it two or three times a week, just to be certain your cat is getting plenty of this critical amino acid.

注意: 如果做好的貓食沒有立刻食用, 而且冷凍保存超過一或二週, 那麼再額外加入 4000mg的牛磺酸來補充貯存期間可能的流失. 餵食時拿出一顆牛磺酸膠囊灑在食物上, 每週二到三次, 也是一個不錯的作法, 這麼做只是要確保你的貓有獲得足夠的必要氨基酸.

1. Remove about half of the skin from the muscle meat. Chunk up (i.e., cut) much of the muscle meat (minus most of the skin if using chicken or turkey, but leave skin on if using rabbit) into bite-sized (nickel-sized, approximately) pieces. Save the chunked meat for later - do not grind it.

1. 除去大約一半的皮, 把大部份的肉切或剪成一口可吃下的小塊, 放在一旁備用, 不要絞. 

要把全部或是大部份的無骨肉都切, 剪成小塊, 或是全部都拿去絞成肉泥, 要看你的貓而定. 如果你的貓願意吃小肉塊, 那麼其實可以不需要買絞肉機, 你只需要一把好用的剪刀, 把食譜用到的無骨肉, 心和肝, 全部剪成小塊即可.

2. Grind the raw liver, remaining meat and the raw heart. Once ground, stir this mixture well and return to refrigerator.

2. 把生肝, 剩下的肉和生的心打成泥狀. 打好後拌勻放入冰箱冷藏備用.

3. Fill a bowl with 2 cups of water and whisk everything (non-meat) except the psyllium and gelatin. If you had to replace liver with Vitamin A and D or heart with Taurine, add those substitutes now. Add psyllium (if you're using that) and gelatin at the end and stir well. (If you add the psyllium and gelatin too soon it clumps up.) Finally, put the three mixtures together -the "supplement slurry" that you have just mixed, the ground-up meat, and the chunks of meat you cut by hand. Portion into containers and freeze.

3. 在一個碗中倒入兩杯水, 把所有營養品加入, 先不要加入肉, 洋車前子粉和吉利丁. 如果你選擇用維他命A和D取代肝, 用牛磺酸取代心, 那麼把這些營養補充品也在此時加入拌勻. (如果太早把洋車前子粉和吉利丁加入, 會造成凝結) 最後把三份混和物加在一起, 即這份拌勻的營養品混合物, 絞好的肉, 和切塊的肉. 全部拌勻後裝入容器送入冷凍

Don't overfill the containers. Thaw only what you can use within 48 hours. Warm the food in a plastic bag under hot water to take off the chill, and serve.

容器不要裝太滿. 冷藏的份量以兩天能吃完為基準. 食用前把肉泥放在塑膠袋中再置入熱水以回溫.
譯註: 其實回溫的方式看個人習慣&方便而定.

*Every two or three days, I suggest sprinkling a few drops of fresh salmon oil from a newly-opened capsule on to the cats' food. The Essential Fatty Acids in salmon oil are extremely fragile, and since we don't know exactly how much gets lost during freezing, I think it's wise to use a bit of fresh salmon oil directly on the food a few times a week. Most cats love the flavor.

* 建議每二到三天在食物上滴幾滴新鮮的鮭魚油. 因為鮭魚油中的必要脂肪酸非常脆弱, 我們不知道在冷凍的過程中會流失多少, 所以我覺得在食物中直接滴上幾滴來做補充, 一週幾次, 是很好的作法. 大部份的貓喜歡魚油的味道.

** Not all cats require additional fiber (psyllium) in their diet. If your cat has been eating low-quality commercial food for several years, especially dry food, she may have lost bowel elasticity and may benefit from the extra fiber. As a general rule, I recommend using psyllium when an adult cat first gets raw food. I rarely add psyllium to my adult cats' diet these days. Bear in mind that some cats seem to get constipated without additional fiber, whereas other cats seem to get constipated if they get too much fiber. Each cat is unique, and you'll have to judge what works best for your cat.

** 並不是所有的貓都需要額外補充纖維(洋車前子). 如果你的貓吃了好幾年品質差的商業食品, 尤其是乾料, 她的腸道可能失去彈性, 補充纖維可以提供幫助. 剛轉換生食的成貓我都會推薦補充纖維. 現在我自己則是很少補充洋車前子. 有些貓好像沒有補充纖維會便秘, 有些則是吃了太多纖維會便秘. 每隻貓的體質不盡相同, 你要自己做判斷.

***If you don't want to waste the egg whites and don't feel like making an angel food cake, poach them, grind them, and throw them in with the food.  A nice phosphorus-free source of protein. 
*** 如果不想浪費蛋白, 也不想拿來做蛋糕, 那麼可以把蛋白煮熟後絞碎, 加入肉泥中. 蛋白是良好的, 沒有磷的蛋白質來源.

How much food does this make?  
A batch based on the top recipe makes a wee bit over 2 kg (4.4 pounds) of food.  How long that will last is entirely dependent on your cat.  

大約兩公斤多一點. 至於可以吃多久則看你的貓而定.

In truth, I usually make about a triple-sized batch.   


If you're using the super-nifty pint-sized can-or-freeze jars to store food (see Supplies), each jar holds about 400 grams of food.  That means that if you make a single-sized batch (2 kg), you will need about five or six jars to store the food.  

(這段講放肉泥容器, 所以沒譯.)

Those six-ish jars should feed the average healthy adult cat (and I know, no cat is average) for about 12-14 days.  Please understand that every cat's appetite, needs, activity level, body size, and moods are different so your mileage may vary.  

就一隻健康的成貓而言, 這份食譜大約可以吃12-14天. 但是每隻貓的狀況不同, 胃口可能會因為活動力, 體型和心情不同而有所差異.
Vitamin A 維他命A
Vitamin D 維他命D
Bonemeal 骨粉
gelatin 吉利丁
salmon oil 鮭魚油
vitamin E 維他命E
vitamin B50 維他命B50
taurine 牛磺酸
glandular 腺體
台灣要買預拌粉不但不方便而且又很貴, 我真的不明白為什麼有人願意花那麼多錢去買預拌粉, 而且往往要等很久. (錢太多沒地方花嗎? 我口袋借你放啦.) 預拌粉的邏輯就是把一份食譜需要的營養品都先幫你混和加在一起, 如此而已. 與其花很多錢去買預拌粉, 不如做無骨食譜. 買營養品的 iherb 網站早就有簡體中文版, 購買起來絕對不會比買預拌粉麻煩, 而且台灣的拍賣網站也都買的到這些營養品. 你說人家預拌粉有熟食預拌粉, 如果說吃熟食你比較安心, 那也可以用小火把無骨食譜的食材慢慢煮熟, 放涼後再加入營養品, 那不是同樣的道理嗎?
不過話說回來, 就算你是買貴貴的預拌粉, 也總比餵飼料來的好. 我不明白為什麼有人口口聲聲說毛小孩是家人, 但卻餵家人吃飼料. 你會餵家人吃飼料嗎? 你自己吃飼料嗎? 

照片中紅色的肉塊是鴨肉 (有時候是雞肉塊, 鵝肉塊等)
下面黑黑的是烏骨雞肉泥 (有時候是別的雞, 例如黑羽, 珍珠雞)
左上角是一點魚罐頭, 讓貓吃的開心一點
除了少許的罐頭以外, 全部都是新鮮的食物, 而且我還會變換肉類

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