October 30, 2015
Constipation: Real Help for Your Cat
Ｌast Updated on Saturday, September 19, 2015 04:46 PM
Published on Saturday, December 06, 2014 07:05 PM
Written by Natascha Wille
作者 Natascha Wille (TC Feline創辦人)
One of the immediate results when feeding a raw meat diet is less cat poop, and cat poop that smells less. While some cat owners welcome this change, some are concerned that their cats might be constipated.
餵生食後一個最立即的結果是大便的量變少, 而且也比較不臭. 有些貓主人對這個改變感到開心, 有些則是擔心他們的貓是不是便秘了.
Feeding a raw diet can closely resemble nutritionally what cats would eat if living wild in their native habitat, but, despite our best efforts, it is not a truly natural diet. The natural diet can only be replicated by feeding small whole prey. One of the biggest differences between feeding raw diets and the natural prey diet is: fur. Fur, ingested with prey, has no nutritional function, but serves two key mechanical functions which we lack when feeding a home-made raw diet. First, by action of the cat biting down on small prey, the fur of the prey is brushing against the teeth, helping to wipe away plaque and preventing accumulation of tartar. Second, fur has an important role as a non-irritating stool bulker.
餵生食可以儘量貼近貓的營養需求, 模擬貓在自然棲息地的食物, 然而生食並不是真正的自然食物, 獵物才是. 餵生食和餵整隻獵物之間最大差別之一是毛髮. 貓把獵物的毛髮一起吃下去, 雖然毛髮沒有營養價值, 但有兩個主要功能, 是餵自製生食無法達到的. 首先, 貓在咀嚼獵物時, 其毛髮會對貓的牙齒產生刷牙作用, 幫助去除牙垢, 預防牙結石. 再者, 毛髮可以加大糞便的份量, 所以毛髮扮演了一個重要的角色, 而且不會對貓造成刺激.
Unfortunately, fur is next to impossible to substitute in the raw meat diet, because adding hair or fur to a recipe would be difficult. Instead, people resort to a number of ingredients from plant origin to fulfill this need. The cereals, potatoes, peas, and beet pulp in commercial pet foods are not only intended as a source of inexpensive calories and for texture, but they also serve to bulk stool. The same goes for vegetables and fiber supplements in home-made recipes. But, fur is protein, while stool bulkers from plant sources are cellulose and starch based. Cellulose and starch are fermented in the lower digestive tract by different bacteria than fur would be, and this can cause problems. Problems may arise right from the start when cats are reluctant to eat a food filled up with vegetables or fiber supplements or when they regurgitate the food because of it.
很不幸的是在自製貓食中加入毛髮是不可能的. 因此有人在食物中加入植物補足對毛髮的需求. 商業食品中的穀物, 馬鈴薯, 豆子和甜菜根, 不僅是便宜的熱量來源, 而且也有加大糞便量的效果. 這跟在自製貓食中加入蔬菜和纖維補充品是同樣的道理. 不過毛髮是蛋白質, 而可以加大糞便量的植物則是纖維和澱粉. 纖維和澱粉在消化系統中被不同的細菌發酵, 但毛髮則不是如此, 所以可能會造成問題. 問題可能一開始就會出現, 當貓不想吃下充滿蔬菜和纖維補充品的食品時, 或是吃下但卻反胃.
Is your cat really constipated? What some cat owners observe as constipation isn't really a problem. Perhaps it is a trademark of an animal that is native to a mostly semi-arid climate. Having evolved in the dry climate of Africa and the Near East, cats are superbly equipped to conserve water. They do not sweat and rarely pant; they concentrate their urine to a high degree and extract all possible fluids from feces before it leaves their body. They are so efficient in conserving water that they can exist on the fluids provided by eating prey alone. Their feces will naturally be very firm, pellet-like, dry, and off-white or with a yellow tint. The feces will be crumbly, held together largely by hair – cat hair and that of prey.
你的貓真的便秘嗎? 有一些貓主人觀察到便秘, 但其實並不是. 也許對天生居住在半乾旱地區的動物而言, 大便量少是正常的. 貓生長在非洲和西亞的乾燥氣候, 有極佳的貯水能力. 他們不流汗, 很少喘氣; 尿液濃縮度極高, 糞便在排放之前水分已被盡量抽出. 極高的貯水效率讓貓光吃獵物本身的水份就可以生存. 糞便當然很硬, 顆粒狀, 乾乾的, 灰黃色或是黃色, 易碎, 主要是因為毛髮而結成團, 來自貓本身和獵物的毛髮.
Constipation includes infrequent bowel movements, typically three times or fewer per week, incomplete bowel evacuation and difficulty during defecation due to hard, dry stool, causing straining during more than 25% of bowel movements, the cause of which is a slow transit time. Transit time is the time which elapses from when food is ingested to its excretion in the form of stool.
便秘的症狀包括不頻繁的腸道蠕動, 一週排放三次或更少, 排便不完全, 排便困難因為大便太硬太乾, 排便時四分之一以上的時間要很用力, 因為消化慢. 消化的定義是從吃下食物到排出體外的這段時間.
If your cats' feces look similar to this image, all could be well, but it's possibly not what you thought the feces of cats should look like. The feces pictured are similar to what I see in my own raw fed cats. My attempts to change the appearance of the feces by addition or omission of ingredients have been unsuccessful. As a result, my cats produce small, dry feces and often only a few times per week. Over the past 20 years that has simply not led to any problems in my cats. Based on the description of what constipation is, my cats would be considered constipated. Be sure your cat is having a problem before you treat for constipation. Raw fed cats typically have dry feces; this alone does not mean the cat is constipated.
如果你的貓的大便看起來和這張照片的類似，那應該是正常的, 但有可能你不認為貓便應該是這個樣子. 我家生肉貓的大便和照片中類似. 我曾想要在食物中增加或減去某些食材以改變大便的外觀, 但並沒有成功, 我的貓大便是小小乾乾的, 而且常常一週只有幾次. 在過去20年中, 大便少並沒有造成我的貓出現任何問題. 但是根據以上對便秘的定義, 我的貓是便秘的. 在治療便秘之前, 你要確定你的貓是有問題的. 吃生食的貓大便都很乾, 但並不表示貓便秘.
However, some cats have a real problem with constipation. Restlessness, lack of appetite, vomiting, and frequent trips to the litterbox to defecate without results requires veterinary attention. A veterinarian will help to diagnose its cause and find an appropriate solution, because constipation is not always diet-related. To relieve the acute condition, a veterinarian will administer an enema and prescribe medication and laxatives.
然而有些貓真的有便秘的問題. 他們會表現出不安的樣子, 沒有胃口, 嘔吐, 頻繁的去用貓砂, 想要大便卻大不出來, 這個時候要趕快帶貓就醫. 獸醫會診斷出原因然後找出適當的解決方式, 因為便秘並非都是和食物有關. 解決急性的症狀, 獸醫會灌腸, 開藥和通便.
To help prevent constipation, there are various methods you can try. Some might be successful; others only in the short term; some might be of no benefit at all. Interestingly, some of the successful methods are often effective for only some time, until cats have dry, infrequent bowel movements once again despite it.
有很多方式可以預防便秘. 有些也許有用, 有些只有短期有用; 有些可能一點用處也沒有. 有趣的是一些成功的方式常常都只是短期有用, 不久貓又開始排出乾乾的大便, 又開始減少大便次數.
Stool volume and frequency of bowel movements increases as the portion of indigestible matter in food is raised. Large, frequent bowel movements indicate that the food eaten is largely indigestible, and little of it is being utilized. If it is desirable to increase fecal output, the order of the day must be to increase the content of indigestible matter (filler) in the food. Commercial dry foods, for example, produce bowel movements of unnaturally large size, loose texture, intolerable odor, and high frequency due to the high content of ingredients of poor nutritional value.
食物中不好消化的食材如果比例高, 相對的大便的量和次數也會變多. 大便量多表示吃下去的食物沒有被吸收, 只有少量被身體利用. 如果要提高大便量, 那一定要提高食物中無法消化的成分. 舉例來說, 吃商業乾糧貓大便是不自然的多, 結構鬆軟, 難聞, 而且大便次數多, 因為乾料中有高比例的, 無法消化的, 營養價值低的食材.
Water. Adding more water to the diet in hope of making feces softer does not work. Cats' physiology is such that they naturally extract as much moisture from feces as possible before voiding them. Adding water to food will increase urine output, but reduce food intake, because the same volume of food now contains more moisture. Reduced food intake will result in fewer feces and makes constipation worse.
在食物中加水希望大便通暢是行不通的. 貓的生理結構是會在把大便排出去之前, 盡量吸光其中的水分. 加水小便會變多, 但相對的吃下的食物量會變少, 因為同量的食物現在含有較多水分. 減少食物量會讓大便的量更少, 便秘狀況反而會更嚴重.
Increased food intake. I have observed that kittens are rarely constipated. Every day they void nice feces on the raw food. Compared to adult cats, kittens consume proportionally much more food to support their daily energy requirements and support growth. Active cats that eat more food to support the energy requirement of their lifestyle also have larger and more frequent bowel movements. Simply put, food volume translates into fecal volume. Increased food intake signals more frequent emptying of the bowel before feces become excessively desiccated in the colon which perpetuates the constipation problem. Inactive cats that just nibble on their food instead of eating it with gusto are very prone to constipation. It is important to increase palatability of the food to assure that cats eat a healthy portion at each feeding.
根據我的觀察小貓很少便秘. 吃生肉的小貓每天都有漂亮的大便. 和大貓比起來, 小貓吃下比較多的食物以提供身體熱量和成長. 好動的貓會吃比較多以滿足熱量的需求, 大便的次數和份量也會比較多. 簡而言之, 食物的份量決定大便的量. 提高食物份量可以讓大便在結腸中變得太乾燥之前便排出體外, 因為大便在結腸中停留太久會造成便秘. 不愛動的貓食量少很容易便秘. 提高食物適口性很重要, 確保你的貓每餐有吃下維持健康的份量.
Cat hair. If the fur of prey is an ideal stool bulker, then cat hair is a second best. Cats will naturally ingest a lot of their own hair during grooming, and this should not be discouraged. Excessive brushing and bathing may leave your cat short on laxatives! Cat hair should pass through the entire alimentary tract without causing any concern. Healthy cats eating raw food regurgitate almost no hair balls. If cats frequently regurgitate hairballs, crave eating grass, and also bring food back up, then something is wrong.
如果說獵物毛髮是加大便量的理想選擇, 那麼第二最佳選擇便是貓本身的毛. 貓在舔毛時會吃下自己的毛, 不要阻止貓舔毛. 過度梳毛和洗澡會減少有通便作用的貓毛進入貓體內. 貓毛應該要通過整個消化道. 吃生食的健康貓幾乎沒有毛球. 如果常有毛球, 想要吃草, 或是吐出食物, 那就是哪裏不對勁了.
Bone. The feeding of raw bones or bone meal has been linked to constipation. There are two sides to feeding bones, however. Calcium in bone is present as calcium phosphate. An excess of calcium in the diet can contribute to constipation. But bones are not entirely made of calcium phosphate or minerals. Bones are mostly a dense protein matrix in which mineral stores are laid down to give bone rigidity, but also serve the body as a reserve of minerals. This protein matrix of bone isn't unlike fur. It is largely indigestible and as a result bulks stool. Undigested bone in feces looks like crumbly lime.
便秘和餵生骨以及骨粉有關. 餵骨頭有兩方面可以討論. 骨頭中的鈣是磷酸鈣. 吃太多骨頭會便秘. 但骨頭並非全由磷酸鈣和礦物質組合而成. 骨頭主要是密集的有機物蛋白質 (protein matrix), 貯存在其中的礦物質被釋出帶給骨頭硬度, 同時也是身體中的礦物質貯存地. 這種有機物蛋白質功能並非不像毛髮, 其無法被消化的結果是加大便量. 大便中沒有消化的骨頭看起來像碎石灰.
Magnesium. Calcium can contribute to constipation, while magnesium may be used to relieve it. Magnesium has many functions in the body, including buffering stomach acid and moving stool through the intestines. As an essential mineral it must be present in the diet in sufficient amounts, but due to its connection to urinary struvite crystals, many diets for cats are low in magnesium. Some cases of constipation could, therefore, be a magnesium deficiency. A larger dose of magnesium can be used therapeutically as a laxative. The laxative property of magnesium has two mechanisms. Magnesium is essential for proper muscle function in that it aids in muscle relaxation in general, but is also responsible for a smooth rhythm of the intestines. Magnesium also attracts water, increasing the amount of water in the colon to help soften the stool.
鈣會造成便秘, 而鎂也許可以解除便秘. 鎂在身體中有很多功用, 包括減緩胃酸, 幫助糞便穿越腸道. 鎂是一種必要礦物質, 食物中一定要有足夠的鎂. 但是因為鎂和尿路感染結晶有關, 因此很多貓食中的鎂含量是低的. 有些便秘原因是鎂含量不足. 比較高劑量的鎂可以用來當作通便劑, 因為鎂具有兩種機制. 就適當的肌肉功能而言, 鎂是不可或缺之物, 可以幫助鬆弛肌肉, 但也可以同時保持腸道順暢. 鎂還可以吸引水分, 提高結腸水分, 讓大便軟一些.
Raw liver and fat. Raw liver can act like a mild laxative. Increasing the fat content of the meat used to make the diet can encourage a faster transit time of matter through the digestive tract and can encourage more frequent emptying of the bowel. Mild-flavored vegetable oil like canola or sunflower oil can be added to the food as well or instead of using fattier meats. Some cats really enjoy olive oil and will lap it up pure. Vegetable fats are not as easily digested by the cat and may help hasten things along in a similar manner as oral petroleum jelly remedies would.
生肝具有溫和的通便作用. 提高自製貓食中的脂肪可以讓食物比較快一些通過消化道, 以提高排便頻率. 也可以在食物中加入味道輕的蔬菜油, 例如芥花油或葵花籽油, 取代動物脂肪. 蔬菜油對貓比較不好消化, 幫助排便順暢的效果可能類似口服凡士林所帶來的效果.
譯註: 其實我不確定最後一句真正意思, 口服凡士林可以幫助排便是指人類用這個方式解除便秘嗎? 我從來沒有聽過凡士林可以吃下去, 一直以為凡士林是用來擦的…
Pumpkin. By far one of the most popular remedies for constipation in cats by veterinarians and owners alike is inclusion of pure canned pumpkin to the diet. Results are mixed. According to data by the USDA, canned pumpkin is 90% moisture and 2.8% fiber. That means that with each tablespoon of canned pumpkin mixed into a portion of cat food, mostly water and little fiber is added. This means that canned pumpkin is not a stool bulker, but must have other laxative effects. I have heard that canned pumpkin has short-lived effects, however. Cats appear to get accustomed to it, and feces return to being small, dry, and infrequent. Although canned pumpkin is accepted by many cats, some cats will not eat food in which it was included.
目前為止最受獸醫和主人歡迎的便秘解方是在食物中加入罐頭南瓜. 得到的結果不一. 根據美國農業部 (USDA) 的資料顯示, 罐裝南瓜的成份是90%的水, 2.8%的纖維. 那表示每加入一大匙的南瓜到食物中, 加入的大部份是水和少量纖維. 也就是說罐頭南瓜並不能加大糞便量, 但一定有其他的通便效果. 我聽過罐裝南瓜有短期效果, 不過. 貓似乎習慣南瓜的存在, 大便又變回以前小小的, 乾乾的狀態, 而且不頻繁. 雖然很多貓願意吃南瓜, 但有些貓是不吃有加南瓜的食物的.
Another method of adding pumpkin to the diet is to create a vegetable mix with butter. For that, 450g (2 cups) canned pumpkin is heated and 220g (1 cup) butter is melted and blended into the warm pumpkin. This is then added to a recipe of raw cat food using 900g (2 pounds) raw meat and 100g (3.5 ounces) raw liver. Before serving, it is best to warm this type of food. The butter increases the fat content of the diet, which can encourage a faster transit time of matter through the digestive tract and it also increases palatability. Alternatively, and perhaps preferably, steam-cooked and pureed yam or butternut squash can be used instead of canned pumpkin.
另一個把南瓜加到食物的方法是加入奶油做成蔬菜泥. 做法是把450克 (2杯) 的罐裝南瓜加熱後, 加入220克(1杯)的奶油, 奶油遇到熱南瓜會溶化, 拌勻後便是奶油蔬菜泥. 然後把蔬菜泥加到900克的生肉和100克的生肝泥中. 在拿給貓吃之前最好先加熱. 奶油提高食物中的脂肪含量, 可以讓食物比較快速通過消化道, 而且還提了食物的嗜口性. 另一個比較好的方式是用蒸熟磨成泥狀的地瓜或奶油瓜來取代罐裝南瓜.
譯註: 我不知道奶油瓜 butternut squash 台灣是否買的到. 這一段的食譜其實是作者編的低蛋白質食譜, 我已經有另外翻譯出來, 可以在 TC Feline 的文章類別中找到. . 如果你的貓有糖尿病或是胰臟炎, 不要吃這一段寫的食譜.
Vegetables. I cannot truly recommend the addition of any vegetables to the diet of cats. If vegetables are to be included as an aid in helping to prevent constipation, I would have a preference to using cooked or canned pumpkin, squash, or yam as described above. Some cats do appear to have a liking for canned peas and chick peas, and, perhaps, including them in the diet, pureed, is helpful for some cats. I hear that some owners like feeding pureed vegetable baby food from jars. Be careful that baby foods you use do not contain onions or garlic.
我無法真心的推薦在貓食中加入任何蔬菜. 如果要加入蔬菜幫助排便, 我個人偏好以上所提的煮熟的或罐裝南瓜, 奶油瓜或地瓜. 有些貓似乎喜歡罐頭碗豆和鷹嘴豆, 而且或許把這些豆子磨成泥後加到食物中對一些貓有幫助. 我聽說有些貓主人喜歡餵貓吃玻璃罐裝的嬰兒食品蔬菜泥. 要注意你餵的嬰兒蔬菜泥中沒有洋蔥或大蒜.
譯註: 我倒是覺得可以自己種貓草, 餵生肉泥時剪一些新鮮的貓草拌進去, 我的貓都沒有因為加了貓草而拒吃.
Ground sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds, for cats, represent an interesting solution to help bulk stool. They are very mild in flavor and practically indigestible for cats, which means that they pass through the alimentary tract of cats fairly unchanged. They can be ground into a powder with the help of an electric coffee bean grinder. Twenty years ago, when I began formulating my raw diet for cats, I included them successfully as part of a seed and nut mix which attempted to mimic the stomach content of a mouse.
葵花籽可以加大貓的糞便量. 葵花籽味道溫和, 而且對貓而言是無法消化的, 也就是在通過貓的消化道之後, 葵花籽的形狀完全沒有改變. 可以用電動咖啡磨豆機把葵花籽磨成粉. 二十年前當我開始在調配我自己的生肉食譜時, 我把葵花籽成功的加入我的種子和堅果混和物中, 以模擬老鼠胃中的食物內容.
譯註: 作者並沒有列出她種子和堅果混和物的配方, 也沒有寫出可以加多少份量的葵花籽到貓食中.
Ground flax seeds. Flax seeds are a popular fiber supplement for people. Their mild and nutty flavor may make them suitable for use in cats to bulk stool. But, use raw flax with caution. All raw flax seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides which release toxic hydrogen cyanide in the presence of water. The longer raw flax seeds sit in water, or in raw food, the greater the concentration of toxins. Boiling the flax seeds neutralizes the toxin. Flax seeds are best used finely ground, or use a defatted flax fiber supplement. Remember to boil all flax products before including them in cat food. Flax boiled in water creates a gelatinous texture that creates an overall pleasing food texture and may aid in increasing moisture of feces.
亞麻籽是一種人類蠻愛用的纖維補充品, 味道清淡而且有堅果的味道, 頗適合餵貓吃以加大糞便量. 不過使用生的亞麻籽時要小心. 所有生的亞麻籽都含有生氰配糖體 (或譯氰苷類 cyanogenic glycosides). 遇到水的時候會釋放出有毒的氰化氫. 亞麻籽在水中或是在生肉中待越久, 毒性就越集中. 把亞麻籽用沸騰的水煮過可以除去毒性. 最佳的使用方式是把亞麻籽磨成粉末狀, 或是使用脫脂的亞麻籽纖維補充品. 在把亞麻籽加入貓食之前, 務必要先用沸騰的水煮過. 煮過的亞麻籽呈現凝膠狀, 可提高食物口感, 而且可以提高糞便的水分.
譯註: 作者沒有寫出可以加多少亞麻籽在貓食中. 我也不知道要加多少, 因為我也沒用過. 餵生食三年多, 我的貓大便都變少, 沒有味道, 沒有觀察到有便秘的狀況. 只有一開始轉生肉時, 因為不習慣吃比較少, 所以有幾隻有出現一直跑去蹲貓沙盆但卻大不出來的狀況, 後來大家都習慣吃生肉就沒有看到大不出來的狀況. 不過我一直以來都有在肉泥中加入約5%的熟地瓜(和肉一起絞), 每一份P食譜我也都會再額外加約50克的無塩奶油. 我不但沒有去皮, 而且還多加了奶油, 這對覺得脂肪很恐怖的人來說是很可怕的作法吧.
Psyllium husk. Psyllium husk, also sold as the popular brand Metamucil®, is a well-known remedy for preventing constipation in humans. It is also used by veterinarians and cat owners for cats with constipation. Its effectiveness may be short lived, however. It appears that with long term inclusion of psyllium husk in the diet of cats, the remedy loses its effectiveness. It is, therefore, best used as a short term therapeutic remedy. Cellulose gums have a similar function and in a similar way lose their effectiveness if used long term.
洋車前子是人類預防便秘的好方法. 獸醫和貓主人也會用來治療貓便秘. 然而效果可能只是短期的. 好像長期的在食物中加入洋車前子, 會隨著時間的過去而減低效果. 所以最好的方式是拿來當做短期治療用. 纖維膠質有類似的功能, 長期使用效果會降低.
譯註: 我翻譯的 Feline Nutrition 食譜中有列出洋車前子的使用的比例.
Bran. Bran is a well-known source of fiber from wheat, oats, or rice. Wheat and rice bran is not very palatable. Oat bran is high in starch. Personally, I would not subject my cats to any form of bran for fear of causing undue discomfort like regurgitation, vomiting, gas, or diarrhea.
麩是一種來自於小麥, 燕麥或米的纖維來源. 小麥麩和米麩口感並不是很好. 燕麥麩的澱粉含量很高. 我個人不餵貓吃任何麩, 因為擔心貓會反胃, 嘔吐, 脹氣或腹瀉.
Do cats need a source of plant fiber in their diet? Plant fiber is not considered essential for simple stomach carnivorous mammals like cats. As part of their natural prey diet, cats do not ingest dietary plant fiber and their digestion requires no substrate or medium for food fermenting bacteria to live on. Plant fiber plays an important role in the diet of omnivores, and is essential in the diet of herbivores which exist largely on byproducts created by bacterial fermentation of cellulose fiber, but cats as strict carnivores have no natural need for plant fiber.
貓真的需要植物纖維嗎? 對肉食的哺乳動物而言, 植物纖維並非必要. 在貓的自然獵物中, 他們並不攝取植物纖維, 貓的消化系統不需要食物發酵細菌賴以為生的基質或媒介物. 植物纖維在雜食動物的食物中扮演了一個重要的角色, 是草食動物的必需品, 大量的存在於纖維素纖維的細菌發酵所產生的副產品中, 但貓是絕對的肉食動物, 對植物纖維沒有自然的需求.
Introducing plant fiber or starches into the digestive tract of cats means creating a habitat for bacteria which might otherwise not multiply there or be part of the natural gut flora of cats. When these bacteria proliferate and begin to ferment the fiber and starches they create gases which can not only be very uncomfortable to cats, but they can also be toxic and cause inflammation. Inflammation of the intestines will then result in loose stool or diarrhea. Inclusion of plant based fibers and starches in the diets of cats needs to be approached with caution and cats need to be observed for regurgitation, excessive gas, or irritation to the lower digestive tract resulting in loose stool or diarrhea. High levels of fiber in the diet of cats from excessive inclusion of foods or supplements from plant source can depress digestibility of nutrients and outright displace nutrients. Sometimes the cause of constipation is not related to the diet or lack of bulk in the diet, in which case adding fiber will not promote stool bulking and more frequent bowel movements.
在貓食中加入植物纖維或澱粉, 意味著製造出一個細菌的棲息地. 在這個棲息地中也許細菌不會增生, 可能也不會成為自然腸道菌叢的一部份. 當這些細菌增生並且開始發酵纖維和澱粉時會產生氣體, 這些氣體不僅會讓貓非常不舒服而且可能有毒並造成發炎. 腸道發炎會出現軟便或腹瀉. 在貓食中加入纖維和澱粉要小心而為, 觀察貓有沒有反胃, 體內是否有多餘的氣體, 或是下消化道是否受到刺激而軟便或腹瀉. 貓食中如果有高比例的植物纖維會干擾養分的消化或者甚至徹底的取代養分. 有些便秘的原因和食物無關, 也不是因為便量小, 屬於這些情況的便秘在食物中加入纖維並不會有幫助.
Cats with a tendency to regurgitate their food should not be given fiber, although they may be constipated, because fiber supplements or the addition of vegetables may increase the frequency of regurgitation. Cats that regurgitate food should be fed several small meals of highly digestible food throughout the day. They should not have essential nutrients and calories replaced by bulk in their diet. Constipation in these cats may simply be the result of a lack of food volume passing through the digestive tract. Consistent, small meals throughout the day of highly digestible food should soon remedy this while, with the help of a veterinarian, the underlying cause of the repeated regurgitation of food is being investigated.
有反胃狀況的貓不應該吃纖維, 儘管他們可能會便秘, 但額外的蔬菜纖維補充品可能反而會提高反胃的頻率. 有反胃問題的貓應該是每天少量多餐, 要吃極容易消化的食物. 他們食物中的必要養分和熱量, 不應該被具有便量加大作用的纖維等所取代. 這些貓如果有便秘可能只是單純的因為食物吃太少而已. 固定的每天少量多餐, 餵好消化的食物應該對反胃的症狀有幫助, 此外你還需要獸醫的幫助以找出反胃的真正原因.
Natascha Wille has used a home-made raw meat diet to feed her cats for twenty years. With the help of her large study group of cats, she created one of the most popular raw meat cat food recipes in use today worldwide. She is the innovator behind the raw cat food premix TCfeline, which has helped many cat owners realize raw feeding since 1998. TCfeline is available made in Canada, made in the U.S.A. and made in Germany, for the E.U.
本文作者 Natascha Wille 使用自製生肉食譜餵貓的經驗已超過二十年. 在眾多貓的幫助研究之下, 她所創造的貓生肉餐食譜是現今全球最受歡迎的食譜之一. 她在1998 年推出生食預拌粉品牌 TCfeline, 幫助許多貓主人了解生肉餐. 此一預拌粉目前在三個國家製造及販賣, 分別是加拿大, 美國和德國.