August 28, 2015
Last Updated on Saturday, June 27, 2015 07:03 PM
Recipe: Feline Nutrition's Easy Raw Cat Food
Published on Sunday, January 11, 2015 06:12 PM
Written by Margaret Gates
作者: Margaret Gates (Feline Nutrition 網站創辦人)
Making raw cat food at home isn't hard to do at all, anyone can do it. Once you make your own, you will realize that raw cat food isn't complicated. It helps to know how ground raw diets are made, because commercially made frozen foods are made in much the same way, just on a larger scale. Taking the mystery out of what you feed your cats is important. While your cats benefit from the nutritionally better food, the benefit to you in terms of peace of mind shouldn't be overlooked.
在家做生肉餐一點也不難, 每個人都會. 一旦你開始自己動手做, 就會發現生肉餐一點也不複雜. 自己做之後你知道市售的生肉餐是怎麼做的, 因為過程差不多. 把神秘的製造過程從貓食中移除是很重要的. 你的貓不僅因為吃了符合營養需求的食物而獲利, 你也是, 因為你從此不用再擔心那不可知的神秘製程.
What does a homemade ground raw meat diet consist of? Most importantly, it is more than just meat. Ground raw meat diets for cats consist of meat, organs, bone, fat, egg yolks, water and supplements. All of these are necessary to make the diet balanced. The goal is to mimic the natural prey-based diet of cats. Notice the lack of any carbohydrate-based ingredients. These are not needed in the diet of an obligate carnivore.
自製生肉餐裏面有些什麼東西? 最重要的是, 裏面不僅僅是肉而已. 食譜包含了肉, 內臟, 骨頭, 脂肪, 蛋黃, 水和營養品. 所有的食材都是必須的, 以達到均衡飲食. 食譜設計是以模仿貓在野外會捕捉的獵物為出發點. 請注意, 食譜中沒有任何食材含有碳水化合物, 因為那不是肉食動物所需要的.
Making your own raw meat diet gives you the most control over what goes into your cat's food, allowing you to select the meats and supplements you use. Contrary to what many people think, homemade raw diets are usually less expensive than canned diets. The supplemented, ground diet can be the basis of your cat's healthy diet. To round out the diet, we recommend varying the meats you feed and adding in whole meats, with and without bones, to provide dental benefits and psychological stimulation.
自製貓食你可以完全掌控貓吃了什麼, 可以自己選擇肉類和營養品. 不同於多數人的想法, 自製貓食其實比買罐頭便宜. 這份加了營養品的食譜, 可以做為你的貓的食物基底. 為了讓營養更加均衡, 我們建議你變化肉類, 並且在肉泥中加入去骨和帶骨肉塊, 以促進口腔保健和心理健全.
Depending on your available freezer space and the number of cats you are preparing food for, you should only have to make food every two to four weeks. Once you do it a few times, you'll realize how easy it is. You can easily make 15 pounds of food in about an hour and a half, including clean-up. Following is an overview of what equipment you'll need to get started, what meats and supplements you'll need, a recipe to follow, recipe variations, average costs and some helpful tips.
自製的量以貓可以吃2到4週為主, 看你的冷凍庫大小以及貓口而定. 做過幾次之後, 你就會知道有多容易. 你可以很輕鬆的在一個半小時搞定6公斤的食物, 包含事後清洗. 以下是你開始動手前需要準備的工具, 肉和營養品, 接下來才是食譜, 變化版食譜, 平均成本以及一些小秘訣.
Please note that raw meat diets can have many positive health benefits, even for cats with medical conditions. But, if your cat is ill, you should consult with a veterinarian before you change your cat's diet. This recipe may not be suitable for cats that have chronic kidney disease or other medical issues.
請注意生肉餐對貓的健康有很多好處. 即使是生病的貓. 但是, 如果你的貓生病了, 在改餵生肉餐之前, 你應該先請教獸醫. 這份食譜不適合有慢性腎衰竭或其他病的貓.
Grinder. You will need a grinder that can handle bones. Lower-end meat grinders usually can't, so choose the most powerful grinder your budget will allow. The more powerful the grinder, the larger the bones you can grind. Also, the more powerful machines can grind much more quickly, which can make a big difference if you are making large quantities. Please note that the higher end models can be quite heavy. Grinder parts must be hand-washed; do not put them in the dishwasher. Make sure the grinder you get has a reverse function, not all of them do. Keep in mind that it is frequently skin, sinew and cartilage, not bone, that cause jams in grinders.
你需要一台可以絞碎骨頭的絞肉機. 低階絞肉機通常無法絞骨頭, 所以選一台在你的預算內, 而且可以絞骨頭的機器. 機器越有力, 可以絞碎越粗的骨頭. 再者, 越有力的機器絞起肉來也越快, 如果你做的量很大, 絞肉時間會有很大的差別. 高階的機器很重. 絞肉機零件要手洗, 絕不要放到洗碗機洗. 確定你買的機器有倒轉功能, 因為不是所有機器都有. 另外, 造成絞肉機卡住的往往是皮, 筋和軟骨, 而不是骨頭.
At the lower end of grinders that can handle bones up to the size of chicken thigh bones is the Waring Pro MG855. You would not be able to do anything larger than a chicken thigh bone on this model, but it will get the job done. Slightly more powerful is the STX-1800 MG Magnum which can handle thigh and most chicken leg bones. The popular Tasin TS-108 is mid-size grinder with a solid reputation for dependability and power for its size. On the higher end, there is the Westin 22 Commercial Meat Grinder, which states that it can handle bones for pet food and will make short work of even chicken leg quarters and most turkey bones. It is also quieter than smaller grinders.
較低階而且可以絞雞大腿骨的機型有 Waring Pro MG855. 比雞腿骨大的骨頭這台機子絞不動. 比這台稍微有力一點的機型是 STX-1800MG Magnum, 可以絞碎雞腿骨和大腿骨. 中階絞肉機頗受歡迎的是大新的 Tasin TS-108, 堅固耐用, 以機子大小而言算是有力的. 高階的絞肉機有 Westin 22 Commercial Meat Grinder, 據說寵物食品用到的骨頭都可以絞碎, 甚至火雞骨也行. 跟比較小的機子比起來, 這台也比較小聲.
譯註: 大新絞肉機是一家在台中的台灣公司. 請自己放狗找大新的聯絡資料, 如果你想買的話. 一台是台幣3900元, 運費大約一百元.
A very sharp knife. Keep your knife sharp. You are more likely to cut yourself with a dull blade than a sharp one.
一把很利的刀子. 如果你的刀子很鈍, 可能會弄傷自己.
譯註: 我不知道美國市場買已切塊的雞方不方便, 但台灣挺方便的. 台灣貓友如果要自製, 建議買已切塊的雞, 如果你刀功不怎麼樣的話. 當然如果你刀功很棒, 就當我沒說.
Poultry shears. Very handy.
譯註: 我自己也是習慣用剪刀剪去骨肉塊, 加在肉泥中給貓啃. 我有十二隻貓，五隻貓願意啃帶骨肉塊，牙齒都很乾淨；六隻願意吃去骨肉塊，只有一隻不肯，還在努力中。
Meat cleaver. You may not need a meat cleaver if you are starting with parts, but it's a must if you are working from a whole carcass.
剁刀 – 如果你只是先用某部位的肉做肉泥, 也許不需要用到剁刀, 但如果你要自己剁全雞, 那此項工具必備.
譯註: YouTube 有蠻多自製肉泥的影片, 不同的人示範的食譜都不太一樣, 多看幾個你會發現其實大致的邏輯是相同的. 聽不懂英文也沒關係, 因為有畫面可看, 還是可以知道個大概. 進入 YouTube 後用搜索功能打入 making cat raw food 就可以找到相關影片. 感覺蠻多美國人真的是自己剁全雞的.
Set of mixing bowls. Preferably stainless steel bowls. You'll need at least three: a small one to mix the eggs and supplements, a medium one to use under the grinder outlet and a large one that's at least 8 quarts, for mixing it all up.
混和攪拌肉泥的不锈鋼鋼盆, 至少要三個, 小的用來混和雞蛋以及營養品, 中的用來放在絞肉機出口接絞肉, 大的用來攪拌肉泥和營養品等.
Plastic or glass freezable containers and labels. Or use freezer Ziploc® type plastic bags.
塑膠或玻璃的冷凍容器和標籤. 或是用可以耐凍到攝式零下二十凍的塑膠袋. 通常產品包裝上會印上耐凍/耐熱溫度.
譯註: 原文是寫用密保諾塑膠袋, 但我覺得只要有耐凍到需要的溫度就可以, 不用拘泥於品牌.
Ear plugs. Grinders are loud. Or you can use ear buds and listen to music.
Latex or nitrile gloves. Gloves make it easier to reduce the possibility of contaminating other surfaces. Keep a few pair handy so you can don new ones rather than trying to put used ones back on.
Newspaper, paper or plastic to cover your work surface. Makes clean up much easier.
在工作台舖上報紙, 紙或塑膠袋, 方便事後清理.
Kitchen scale. Some scales have a weight limit of 5 pounds. Be sure to get a kitchen scale that can handle at least 10 pounds.
Large cutting board. Make sure it will fit in the dishwasher.
Freezer space. You'll need to have enough space to store what you make.
足夠的冷凍空間. 不要塞太擠, 不然會外層的已經凍了, 但中間內層卻還沒凍到.
Meat and Eggs
Try to get the best quality and the freshest meat you can. Cats may refuse meat if it's not fresh. The recipe calls for chicken hearts, which can be difficult to source. Hare Today sells chicken hearts at a very good price. They are often available at Asian supermarkets, so try checking ethnic food stores in your area or ask your butcher if he can get them for you. Try to use the real organs if at all possible; hearts are a major source for taurine – an absolutely essential amino acid.
買什麼等級的肉和蛋視個人的預算而定. 但要注意的是如果肉不新鮮, 貓可能會不吃. 這份食譜需要雞心, 也許不容易買到. (以下原文略過不翻, 因為是描述美國市場可以買到雞心的地方, 在台灣並不適用)
譯注: 台灣可以買到雞心和雞肝的地方, 我個人覺得品質可以接受的如下:
If you have ample freezer space you can also try buying in bulk direct from farms or butchers in your area.
Supplements are not optional. These supplements are required. Skipping supplements or letting your recipe "drift" can have serious health consequences for your cat. There are different recipes that call for slightly different supplements, but they cover the same basic needs of the cat. What these supplements make up for is the fact that we aren't feeding cats the whole prey diet they would get in the wild. People have used recipes such as the one below for years without any deficiencies showing up. It is always a good idea to vary the meats you feed, not only for variety for your cat, but also to cover any unknown gaps in the nutrient profile of a particular meat. There may be an as yet unidentified essential micro-nutrient in one kind of meat and not another.
營養品不是選項, 是一定要加的. 如果沒有加營養品, 可能會造成嚴重的健康問題. 不同的食譜添加的營養品會有點差別, 但都有涵蓋到貓所需要的基本營養. 使用營養品是因為我們並不是把整隻獵物拿來絞成肉泥給貓吃. 以下的食譜已經用了多年而且沒有任何健康問題出現. 變化肉源很重要, 不僅是為了你的貓, 而且也可補足特定肉源可能會欠缺的特定養份. 某些還沒有被發現的微量養份可能有存在這種肉, 但卻不存在另一種肉.
All of these supplements are available from Whole Foods, and most are available at health food stores or online.
Note: You may also use a premixed supplement instead of these individual supplements. Make sure that is it intended specifically for use with raw meat and that it's not just a general nutritional supplement. Also note that most come in different versions depending on whether you are using meat with bone or meat without bone. Some brands are Alnutrin, TCfeline and Feline's Pride Raw Made Easy. Please see the Easy Raw Diet Feeding page for links and additional resources.
譯注: 這一段在講預拌粉, 在台灣預拌粉不容易買而且很貴, 所以跳過不譯了. 私心覺得與其買這麼貴的預拌粉, 不如做無骨食譜, 大致的原理是相同的, 只是廠商先把營養品全部和好. 這份食譜的營養品在 iherb 都買的到, 而且不貴. 做無骨食譜划算多了.
Here are the supplements you'll need:
Taurine – Use powdered taurine. It comes in 500 mg capsules. You can also buy loose powder taurine online.
以下是購買連結. 這是一顆1000mg包裝的膠囊, 這份食譜用到2000mg, 所以用兩顆.
Wild Salmon Oil or Wild Caught Small Fish Oil – Some cats don't like the taste of salmon oil. Get capsules, not a liquid in a bottle. Once opened, the liquid can go rancid quickly. It's okay to drop the whole capsule into the grinder, the gelatin capsule is edible. This oil replaces the Omega acids that would usually be in the eyes and brains of the animal eaten. Do not use cod liver oil as it can be high in vitamin A which is toxic in large amounts.
野生鮭魚油或是小型魚魚油. 有些貓不喜歡鮭魚油. 買膠囊包裝, 不要買液體包裝, 因為開封後容易變質. 可以把整顆魚油丟進絞肉機和肉一起絞, 因為膠囊是可以吃的吉利丁. 魚油補充的是獵物眼睛和腦的 omega acids (omega 3 & omega 6脂肪酸等/見譯註). 不要用魚肝油, 因為含有高劑量維他命A, 大量吃會中毒.
譯註: 如果你想要知道到底什麼是 omega acids, 請見另一篇譯文: 貓的基本營養需求.
使用量大的可以買以下這種300顆膠囊包裝, 雖然一顆是1200mg而不是 1000mg, 但我都當1000mg 用. 這罐是 Pierson 推荐的.
以下連結的魚油是 Anne 推荐的
Vitamin E – Get the dry form in capsules, it's much easier than using the liquid capsules. If you can't find the dry form, you will need to pierce the capsules and squeeze the liquid out.
粉末狀的維他命E 會比液態狀的好用. 如果找不到粉未狀的, 把液態狀的膠囊剪開加到肉泥也行.
以下連結是 Pierson 和 Anne 推荐的維他命E
2017/04/03更新譯註: 這份食譜用到的維他命E 的單位是 200IU, 以上連結的都是一顆400IU, 你可以一次做兩份, 那就剛好用一顆. 如果一次只做一份, 就用半顆. 如果我是你我會一次做兩份. 這份食譜其實跟 Anne 的很像, 一樣用了2公斤的肉, 但 Anne 用了 800IU的維他命E, 而這份只有用了 200IU。因為在貓科營養的網站中，有一篇關於維他命Ｅ的文章，當中提到：維他命Ｅ對貓沒有毒性. 不過根據針對人類所做的研究顯示, 如果長時間過量使用可能對健康有害。根據美國飼料管理協會（AAFCO), 美國國家研究委員會(NRC)或是加拿大獸醫協會所制定的準則, 每隻成貓每天可以攝取的維他命E是1到3個IU.(文章連結：http://blog.sina.com.tw/fabulous/article.php?pbgid=3388&entryid=641876）。一份貓科營養的食譜製作完成後重量大約是三千公克，用到的維他命Ｅ是200ＩＵ。如果貓一天吃１２０公克，這份食譜大約可吃２５天。２５天補充200ＩＵ的維他命Ｅ，等於一天大約補充８個ＩＵ的維他命Ｅ，和以上單位的推薦用量比起來高出許多。如果你的貓一天食量超過１２０克，那補充的維他命Ｅ更多，如果你想要每天補充１－３個ＩＵ，那就看你的貓食量而定，如果你的貓一天吃１２０克，一份貓科營養食譜只要額外補充75個ＩＵ的維他命Ｅ就夠了。根據你的貓的食量來決定要補充多少。維他命Ｂ和牛磺酸是水溶性，超過身體需要的量會從尿液中排出。但維他命Ｅ是脂溶性，是不是不要補充過量比較好？
Vitamin B Complex – Get capsules with powdered content.
Lite Salt – Make sure it contains iodine. If Lite Salt is unavailable, use regular iodized table salt, but half the amount the recipe calls for.
淡塩 - 確定你買的是有含碘的. 如果買不到淡塩, 那就用一般的塩, 但用量減半.
Psyllium Husk Powder – An optional ingredient that may be helpful when first feeding a raw diet. This adds fiber with minimal carbohydrates. If your cats have been eating dry food for a long time, they may have lost elasticity in their bowels and may benefit from fiber in their food. Also, some cats may have constipation issues when initially fed a raw diet, so adding fiber in the beginning is a good idea. You can omit it later as your cats adjust to the new diet.
洋車前子粉 － 加不加都可以．如果是初次餵生肉，加了也許會有好處．加這個可以補充纖維，而且碳水化合物極低．如果你的貓長期吃乾乾，他們的腸道可能已經失去彈性，進而需要從食物中獲取一些纖維．再者，有些貓在轉換生食初期會有便秘的困擾，加一些洋車前子粉補充纖維也是一個好做法．一旦你的貓已經適應吃生食，就可以不用加了．
Iherb 有賣, 連結如下:
Recipe Using Chicken Thighs with Bone
4.5 pounds (about 2 kg) chicken thighs with bone. Remove about 20 to 25% of the bone from the total amount of meat used. For example, if you use ten thighs, then take out the bone from two of them. This keeps the calcium/phosphorus ratio correct. Remove the skin from half of the thighs. If your cats are chubby you can remove all of the skin before weighing it. Don't remove the fat from the meat. Weigh the meat after you have removed these skin and bone amounts. You should purchase about 5 pounds (about 2.3 kg) to start with.
譯註: 我的貓除了生病的百吉外, 都是有點小胖胖. 我做肉泥從來不去皮, 一來覺得浪費, 再者覺得貓如果自己去抓一隻雞來吃, 應該不會跳過皮不吃吧 XD
7 ounces (200 grams) raw chicken liver
14 ounces (400 grams) raw chicken heart. If you can't source chicken heart, then substitute with 4000 mg Taurine. If you do omit raw heart, remember to make up the missing 14 ounces of heart with additional chicken thigh meat.
8 ounces (.24 liter) water. Use bottled spring water, not tap water which can have too many chemicals.
4 raw egg yolks
2000 mg Taurine. This is in addition to the taurine you may have added if you didn't use hearts. Taurine is water soluble so you don't have to worry about your cat getting too much.
4000 mg wild salmon or wild caught small fish oil
200 mg Vitamin B Complex
200 IU Vitamin E
1 ½ teaspoons (8.4 grams) Lite Iodized Salt
4 teaspoons (8 grams) Psyllium Husk Powder (optional)
Since it is always hard to buy exactly the amount of chicken thighs the recipe asks for, we have a handy Recipe Calculator/Recipe Calculator Metric to figure out the proportions of all the ingredients based on how much meat you start with. Enter the weight of the meat with bone after you have removed the extra bone and half of the skin and the calculator will figure out how much of all the other ingredients you need. Round off the supplement amounts as necessary.
因為買到剛好重量的雞腿肉並不容易, 所以我們設計了一個食譜計算器, 連結如下:
取出不要的骨頭和皮之後, 把肉的重量打進去, 你就可以看到其他的食材需要用多少量了.
譯注: 如果你看懂計算器中的英文, 知道如何使用, 應該還蠻有用的.
Putting It All Together
Be organized, it will save a lot of time. Cover your work surface with paper or plastic. Set up your grinder, cutting board, tools, supplements and bowls. Oh, and it's probably a good idea to put your four-footed "helpers" in another room at this point, especially if you're going to use the meat cleaver.
做事有方法有組織就可以省下很多時間. 首先在工作枱舖上報紙或塑膠布. 把絞肉機, 切肉砧板, 工具, 營養品和不锈鋼碗放上去. 對了, 把你那有"四隻腳”的幫手關到另一個房間, 這樣在絞肉時比較不會受到干擾, 尤其是如果你需要用到剁刀的話.
Put your gloves on. Remove the skin from half of the chicken thighs, or from all of them if your cats are chubby. Don't remove the fat. Remove the bone from 20-25% of the thighs. Next, weigh out what you will need (image A). Rinse the meat with water to help remove any surface bacteria. At this point, either weigh out exactly the amount the recipe calls for (4.5 pounds) and follow the amounts given in the recipe for the other ingredients or weigh how much meat with bone you have, enter it into the calculator, and then use the amounts shown in the calculator for the rest of the ingredients. If you do use the calculator, you will have to round off the supplements to the nearest capsule. This is okay, it will all even out over the batches you make.
戴上手套. 拿掉一半的雞皮, 如果你的貓肉肉的, 就把所有的雞皮拿走. 不要拿走脂肪. 拿走四分之一到五分之一的雞骨頭. 接下來秤足你要的重量 (照片A). 用水稍微清洗一下雞肉, 可以沖掉表面的細菌. 你可以用足食譜要的2公斤的肉, 如果量不是那麼的剛好, 用食譜計算器去算一下其他的食材的量要如何調整. 如果你有用計算器, 營養品的量就用最接近的膠囊數就好了. 沒有關係, 因為如果這次少放一些, 下次多放一點, 到最後還是會平均的.
In a small mixing bowl, open up the supplement capsules and discard the empty gelatin caps (image B). Leave the fish oil capsules, these you add later when grinding.
拿一個小碗, 把營養品從膠囊中倒入碗中, 把空膠囊丟掉(照片B). 魚油的膠囊則是等一下絞肉時丟下去一起絞.
譯註: 我上次做肉泥有把魚油丟進絞肉機和肉一起絞, 我總共用了40顆魚油, 做完後絞肉機內有十個空的膠囊. 這個新發現讓我省下剪40顆魚油的時間, 好開心.
Add the egg yolks and water to the bowl, and whisk until mixed (image C). Use a fork if you don't have a whisk. Don't add the psyllium yet. This is your "slurry" mixture.
把水和蛋黃加到裝了營養品的碗中, 然後充份拌勻.(照片C) 如果沒有攪拌器就用叉子拌勻. 先不要加入洋車前子粉.
譯註: 你也可以用一個玻璃罐, 把蛋黃, 水和營養品等全部放進去, 然後像搖泡沫紅茶那樣搖晃玻璃罐 (當然要蓋上蓋子), 搖勻後倒入絞好的肉, 玻璃罐還可以拿來裝做好的肉泥, 可以少洗一個碗.
Weigh out the liver and heart; remember to add in an equivalent weight of additional chicken meat if you aren't using heart (image D).
秤雞心和雞肝的重量. 如果你沒有用雞心, 記得要用雞肉去補足雞心的量. (照片D)
Chunk up meat from the thighs. Cut the meat from the side of the thigh with the most meat, and then cut it into roughly ½ inch pieces. Start with smaller chunks if your cats are still getting used to eating meat pieces. You don't have to be very precise; it's okay if some pieces are larger and some smaller (image E).
取下一些腿肉並切塊, 大小約是1.5公分. 先給貓吃小肉塊. 大小不必非得如此精準. (照片E)
譯註: 從照片可以看出來作者用的是和 Pierson 一樣的腿排, 也就是只有一根骨頭. 我有寫信去問作者, 跟她說台灣不容易買到這種腿排, 所以我把食譜做了小修改, 不知道可不可以, 作者回覆可以, 我會把我調整的食材比例和作者的回覆放在這篇譯文的最後面.
Put your ear plugs in now. Set your medium bowl under the grinder outlet. Start feeding the thighs through the grinder. You may need to trim meat off the bone to fit it through the tube. Add the liver, heart and fish oil capsules at intervals to the grinder. You can add the entire fish oil capsule, the gelatin capsule is edible (image F). Tip: if you don't have a bowl that fits well under the grinder outlet, set the grinder at the edge of the sink and put a larger bowl in the sink itself, below the outlet. This also works great if you are making an extra-large batch and are using oversize bowls.
戴上耳塞. 把中型鋼碗放在絞肉機出肉孔接肉. 開始把雞肉放進去絞. 如果肉太大塊, 切小塊一點以便通過絞肉孔. 一邊絞肉一邊加入雞肝, 心和魚油膠囊. (照片F) 秘訣:如果你沒有大小可以剛好放在絞肉機出口的碗，可以把機子放在廚房水槽邊緣，把碗放在水槽接肉．如果你做的量很多，需要用很大的碗來接，這個方法尤其好用．
When it's all ground, transfer it to a large bowl if it isn't already in one, add the slurry mixture, the chunked meat and the psyllium husk, and mix thoroughly (image G). Don't overfill the bowl; you need room to mix it all thoroughly without it overflowing. Using too small of a bowl at this point just makes it difficult to mix. You can use a large plastic tub for this step if that is easier.
Portion out the mixture into glass or plastic containers or freezer Ziploc®-type bags, label them, and freeze (image H). You can refrigerate any portion that you are going to use the same day or the next.
Serving variation: Place the mix into ice cube trays and freeze (image I).
Pop them out after a few hours and you've made your own nuggets (image J). These can be really handy as they thaw more quickly than a larger container. They also come out to a mostly uniform size of about 1¼ ounces, so portioning is easier.
Remember to hand wash your grinder parts; don't put them in the dishwasher.
The approximate ingredient cost for this recipe breaks down as follows:
$1.86 for the supplements
$9.95 for the chicken thighs (5 pounds at $1.99/lb)
$3.00 for the chicken hearts (at $2.99/lb from Hare Today, plus a bit for the shipping)
$1.22 for the liver (at $2.79/lb)
$1.26 for the eggs (at $3.79/dozen)
This works out to about $2.66 a pound, since this recipe makes about 6.5 pounds of food. The chicken thighs can also frequently be purchased at less than $1.99 a pound, which can bring the cost down substantially. For example, if you can get the thighs for $.99 a pound or are using whole chickens at this price, your cost per pound of finished raw food is about $1.89. On a daily basis, if your cat eats 5 ounces per day, this would be 83 cents and 59 cents per day for the two price-per-pound examples. This compares very favorably to canned food, especially when you consider that there are no fillers, by-products or carbs.
Whole Chicken Version
You can start with a whole chicken as purchased from a store or butcher. This would be a dressed chicken without head, feet, entrails or feathers. Remove the neck and the backbone to reduce the bone content a bit. You will need a grinder capable of grinding the larger bones in the carcass. If a packet of organs is included, then add them to the grind.
Use turkey thighs if you can. Don't use only turkey necks or wings as the bone to meat ratio and thus the calcium to phosphorus ratio would be off. You can start with a whole turkey; just keep the percentage of bone, by weight, at around 7 to 10%. You can use chicken livers and hearts if you can't get adequate quantities of turkey liver/hearts. Follow the rest of the recipe as shown.
Duck, Pheasant, Quail or Cornish Hen
Use the same recipe as above when grinding a whole, dressed bird. Again, it's okay to use chicken hearts and liver. If you have them, include the organs that came with the bird in the total weight of liver and heart.
如果是用整隻的鴨, 雉雞或鵪鶉做肉泥, 那就照食譜的份量去做, 一樣要去掉頭, 脖子, 腳和羽毛. 一樣可以用雞心/肝來取代鴨, 雉雞或鵪鶉的心/肝. 如果你買的鴨, 雉雞, 鵪鶉有附心/肝, 就加到食譜所需的雞心/肝一起絞.
A kitty favorite! Follow the instructions above if you are using a dressed rabbit, i.e. no head, entrails, fur, feet, etc., or if using rabbit parts.
Fish as the basis of a raw diet is not recommended. Avoid top-of-the-food-chain fish such as tuna altogether as they are much more likely to be contaminated with PCBs or heavy metals than short-lived fish lower on the food chain. Feeding water-packed sardines once a week can provide extra omega fatty acids. For variety, you can also occasionally add a can of wild-caught salmon to the ground recipe.
不推薦用魚做生肉餐. 完全避開食物鏈上方的魚, 例如鮪魚, 因為比起食物鏈下方壽命較短的魚, 食物鏈上方的魚比較有可能遭到多氯聯苯或重金屬的污染. 一個禮拜餵一次水煮沙丁魚可以提供額外的 omega 脂肪酸. 如果要變化食譜, 也可以偶爾加一罐野生鮭魚罐頭和肉一起絞.
譯注: 原文的沙丁魚其實是寫 water-packed sardines, 以台灣可以買到的海底雞罐頭為例, 有裝在油中也有裝在水中的，而且有含塩。台灣的超市可以買到鮪魚以外的水煮魚罐頭。另外, 作者寫可以加一罐水煮野生鮭魚罐頭到食譜中, 但並沒有寫一罐的重量是多少。
Pre-Ground Frozen Meats
This means pre-ground, unsupplemented meat/bone/organ grinds specifically intended for use as a raw pet food, not grocery-store boneless ground meat. Thaw the meat in the fridge. You can add the supplements as soon as it's thawed enough to mix; it doesn't have to be completely thawed. It's okay to re-freeze after mixing; since the meat was originally frozen immediately after grinding, it didn't sit around growing bacteria. Using pre-ground is a real time saver. Just add in the slurry mixture and portion out, and then freeze. There is approximately 5.8 pounds of meat in the chicken thigh recipe, including the meat, bone, and organs. If you are supplementing a five pound tube of meat/bone/organ grind, you will need to reduce the supplements by 15%. Or, you can increase the total amount of meat to 5.8 pounds by adding some chunked meat.
譯註: 這一段在講買預先絞好的肉/骨頭/內臟, 然後自己加營養品. 因為台灣市場目前並沒有這種肉泥可買, 所以略過不譯.
Using Meat without Bone
Some people want to use a recipe that does not include bone. We highly recommend that you grind your own from whole cuts of meat or purchase boneless ground meats specifically made for raw feeding pets.
有些人要用沒有含骨的食譜. 我們極力推薦自己絞肉, 或是買已經絞好的寵物用無骨肉.
You might ask, "Why can't I just get ground meat from the grocery store?" Ground meat from a grocery store has the potential to have higher levels of pathogens. When meat is ground it greatly increases the surface area where bacteria can multiply. It also spreads any bacteria present on the outside of the meat throughout the mix. Meat ground for human consumption is often not handled with the same care as meat used for raw diets. Commercial raw diet makers maintain very high standards and the meat is immediately frozen after grinding to keep bacteria from multiplying. Grocery store ground meat is intended to be thoroughly cooked. In fact, they are counting on the fact that you will cook it. We are not saying that all grocery ground meat is bad, just that the potential for trouble is higher. Keep in mind that raw meat itself is not dangerous, fresh meat is pretty much pathogen-free. Pathogens can get introduced onto the meat – and are only on the outside of the cut – during slaughter and handling.
也許你會問: 為什麼不要買絞好的肉? 因為絞好的肉可能會有比較多的病原體. 當肉絞好後, 細菌可以增生的表面面積大量增加. 而且還會把肉表面的細菌擴散到絞好的肉中. 人吃的絞肉通常在處理上沒有像動物生食的絞肉那麼仔細小心. 市售寵物肉泥都是製作完成後立刻冷凍, 防止細菌增生的機會. 人吃的肉沒有如此處理, 因為都是煮熟了才吃. 並不是說所有現成的絞肉都是不好的, 只是潛在風險比較高一些. 切記, 生肉本身並不危險. 新鮮的肉幾乎是沒有病原體的. 病原體依附到肉的機率是在屠宰以及處理過程.
Please note: Raw bone is more than just a calcium source. Using a calcium supplement is inferior to using real bone. We strongly recommend using the recipe with real bone for long-term raw feeding.
注意: 生骨並非只是鈣的來源. 用鈣粉比不上用真骨頭. 我們強烈建議用真的骨頭來做這份食譜, 就長期餵食而言.
If you are using boneless meat, you will need to add a calcium source, since meat contains very little. You will want to add about 1000 to 1200 mg of calcium per pound of meat. The three basic ways to add calcium are: bone meal powder, MCHA (microcrystalline hydroxyapatite) or eggshell powder. Because bone meal powder and MCHA also contain phosphorus and can throw off the calcium to phosphorus ratios, which are important, we recommend using eggshell powder.
如果你用的是無骨肉, 你會需要添加鈣, 因為肉的鈣含量極低. 每磅的肉要加 1000mg 到 1200mg的鈣. 有三種方式可以補充鈣: 骨粉, 微結晶羥磷灰, 或蛋殼. 因為骨粉和微結晶羥磷灰含有磷, 可能會造成鈣磷比不平衡, 所以我們建議用蛋殼.
Eggshells are usually about 97% calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is 40% elemental calcium, which is what we measure. One teaspoon of eggshell powder contains about 1800 to 2200 mg of elemental calcium. You should add about ½ teaspoon per one pound of meat and organs. Eggshell calcium has the advantage that it is very low in phosphorus, so it can be added in amounts that will balance the phosphorus content of the meat. It also avoids the use of bovine bone and concerns about lead, mercury and prions.
蛋殼含有97%的碳酸鈣, 而碳酸鈣中含有40%的鈣. 一茶匙 (one teaspoon) 的蛋殼有 1800mg 到 2200mg的鈣. 每磅的肉和內臟要加1/2茶匙的鈣. 蛋殼鈣粉的好處是磷含量很低, 所以可以被用來平衡肉中的磷.
譯註: 如果你要用鈣粉, 可以買以下連結的這瓶碳酸鈣粉 (calcium carbonate)
這瓶每半茶匙(1/2 teaspoon) 中有 600 mg 的鈣 (包裝後面有標示), 以上面寫的每磅肉和內臟要加1/2茶匙的蛋殼粉來看, 等於每磅 (453公克) 要用900mg到 1100mg的鈣. 所以如果你用這瓶鈣粉來做這裏的無骨食譜, 肉/內臟/蛋黃加起來的總重量約2030克, 你要用大約4500mg 到 5500 mg 的鈣. 因為
2030g / 453g = 4.5
900mg x 4.5 = 4050 mg
1100mg x 4.5 = 4950 mg
4050mg / 600 mg = 6.75, 即6 個半茶匙 + 1個 1/4 茶匙 + 1個1/8茶匙
4950 mg / 600 mg = 8.25, 即8 個半茶匙 + 一個1/８茶匙
你就自己取個中間值來加, 6.75 + 8.25 = 15 除以 2 = 7.5, 也就是七個1/2茶匙 + 1個1/4 茶匙
七個半茶匙 + 1/4茶匙就是
半茶匙 (即照片中的 1/2 teaspoon) 要七匙
1/4 茶匙就是照片中的 1/4 teaspoon 要一匙
You can purchase eggshell calcium or make your own. If you buy it, make sure it is pure eggshells with nothing else added. To make your own, follow these steps:
蛋殼鈣粉可以用買的也可以自己做. 如果是用買的, 要確定是純蛋殼鈣粉, 沒有任何額外的添加物. 如果要自己做, 步驟如下:
Remove any egg white from the shells but leave the membrane as it contains valuable nutrients. Dry them by baking at 300°F for 10 minutes. Grind them in a clean coffee grinder or food processor. Wait for 10 minutes before opening the grinder to let the powder settle and avoid a cloud of powder coming out. One large egg will make about one teaspoon of powder. Store the powder in an air-tight glass jar.
把蛋白完全倒出來, 蛋殼內有一層薄膜可以留著, 因為含有養份. 用攝氐150度烤十分鐘. 然後用咖啡豆的磨豆機或是食物處理機把蛋殼打碎. 打完後約十分鐘再打開機器, 用意是要讓蛋殼灰完全落下. 一顆大的蛋可以做大約一茶匙的蛋殼鈣粉. 把成品儲存在密封的玻璃容器.
Make the following adjustments to the recipe when using boneless meat:
Use 3 pounds raw muscle meat (boneless chicken or turkey thigh meat with half of the skin removed, or boneless rabbit) instead of the 4.4 pounds chicken thighs with bone. Add in 2¼ teaspoons eggshell powder (this recipe contains about 4.5 pounds of meat/organs/yolks).
1360克的去骨腿肉 (雞或火雞, 除去一半的皮)
Follow the rest of the recipe as it is, including adding the hearts, liver, raw egg yolks, water and supplements.
其餘的部份, 也就是雞心, 肝, 生蛋黃, 水和營養品都和有骨食譜的份量相同.
Ideally, cats want their food at "mouse body" temperature. The best way to accomplish this is to put thawed or partially thawed food in a Ziploc-type baggie. Squeeze as much air out as you can and then place the baggie in a bowl of warm water for five minutes or so. This warms it up without cooking it. It's best not to microwave it, since this does cook it. To serve, cut off the corner of the baggie with scissors and pour or squeeze it onto their plate. Serving the food cold can cause stomach upset, and your cat may throw it up.
理想上, 貓希望食物的溫度接近老鼠的體溫. 要達到這種溫度的最好方式是把已經解凍或半解凍的生肉泥, 裝在密保諾塑膠袋中, 把空氣儘量擠出來後, 把袋子放在一碗溫水泡大約五分鐘. 這樣可以把肉加熱但卻不會煮熟. 最好不要用微波的方式加熱, 因為會把肉煮熟. 上菜時把塑膠袋的一角剪掉, 把生肉泥擠出來就好了. 餵冷肉可能會造成胃腸不適, 把食物吐出來.
譯注: 我覺得這種加熱方式蠻不環保的, 還是比較愛用我的小烤箱.
Cats usually prefer to eat off a plate, rather than a bowl. For feeding raw food, glass or metal is preferred because they won't get bacteria-harboring scratches the way plastic will. A low sided Pyrex baking dish or pie plate works great; they are heavy enough not to move around as the cat eats and they usually come with covers for refrigerating leftovers. Some people like to use paper plates for easier clean up.
貓通常比較喜歡用盤子吃肉泥, 而不是碗. 餵生肉時, 要用玻璃或金屬容器, 因為塑膠容器容易有刮痕, 形成細菌的溫床. 有蓋子的玻璃盤也蠻好用的, 因為如果肉泥沒吃完, 蓋上蓋子就可以放進冰箱. 也有人喜歡用紙盤, 因為清理方便.
How Much to Feed
Generally, for adult cats you should feed 2 to 4% of ideal body weight per day. For example: for a 10 pound cat at 3%, this would work out to 4.8 ounces a day. When starting out feeding a raw diet, try the middle percentage of 3% and monitor your cat closely to see if she gains or loses weight, then adjust the amount you feed up or down accordingly. Cats will vary in how much they will want to eat in a day; one day they're ravenous and the next they're leaving food on the plate. This is normal. Feed at regular mealtimes; twice a day is fine, but you can do it in three or four meals if you want. Kittens can require twice as much food per pound of body weight as adult cats, as they are growing, not just maintaining their weight. Kittens should also be fed at least every four to six hours.
基本上, 每天的餵食量大約是貓體重的百分之二到四. 假設貓體重是5公斤, 百分之三大約是150克. 當你開始餵生肉時, 先從餵體重的百分之三開始, 仔細觀察貓的體重是增加還是減少, 然後視情況調整食量. 貓每天的食量可能會有所不同; 也許今天吃好多, 但昨天的卻沒有吃完. 這是正常的狀況. 餵食時間要固定, 一天兩次即可, 但如果可以一天三次也行. 小貓的食量可能是大貓的兩倍, 以體重為比例, 因為他們正處成長階段, 食物的量不僅僅只是維持體重而已. 小貓應該一天餵四到六次.
譯註: 我剛開始餵自製肉泥也有餵食量的困擾, 昨天吃好多, 今天好吃少. 後來我抓了一個平均值, 每天餵固定的量, 就沒有胃口起伏的煩惱了. 不過夏天我的貓胃口比較不好, 平均每隻大約比冬天少吃10-20克吧.
Calculate how much to feed your adult cat using our handy How Much to Feed Calculator/How Much to Feed Calculator Metric.
譯注: 計算的單位是美國習慣用的磅和盎司. 第一欄是輸入貓的體重 (磅), 第二欄是以體重的百分之二為基礎計算出來的餵食量 (盎司), 第三欄是百分之三, 第四欄是百分之四.
If your cat is overweight, try feeding the amount they would need for their ideal weight, not the weight they are now. They will then lose weight slowly down to their ideal.
如果你的貓體重過重, 那就用理想體重要吃的食量給貓吃, 而不是他們目前的食量. 這樣可以慢慢的把體重調整到理想範圍.
Get a good scale to keep accurate track of your cats' weights, even if they are not overweight. Health-O-Meter makes a good baby scale that works well for cats. It features a very useful averaging function that will get an accurate weight even on a squirming cat, and a zero-out function that allows you to get a weight even if you have to wrap the cat in a towel or put her in a carrier to weigh her.
Making your own cat food is easy. Once you do it a few times, it gets even easier. Most people end up feeding a combination of homemade, commercially made raw diets and whole meats. This is actually preferred, variety is important, both in the types of meat and the different recipes. This variety helps to even out the nutrients provided. Including whole meat chunks, both with and without small bones and as big as your cats will tackle, is also recommended.
自己做貓食是很簡單的, 做過幾次後就得心應手. 大部份的人到後來都是選擇用不同的食物交換餵食, 自己做的, 市售生肉等. 其實這麼做比較好, 因為可以有變化. 不管是肉的種類或是不同食譜配方, 有做變化是重要的. 記得要餵帶骨生肉塊.
Once you have made the raw diet yourself, you will gain a better understanding of how commercial raw foods are made, as the process is nearly identical. Take a look at "A Visit to a Raw Food Company" for a peek at how one manufacturer does it. Raw foods are very different from processed, cooked foods and much simpler to put together.
一旦你自己有做生肉泥, 就會知道商業生肉泥是如何製作, 因為過程差不多. 以下連結是一家生肉泥公司的製作過程. 生肉製作過程比熟肉貓食簡單很多.
譯注: 影片可以看到貓科營養網站創辦人的廬山真面目. 影片中的品牌我沒有仔細看, 也不知道台灣有沒有在賣. 我想在美國要買到商業生肉餐會比台灣方便, 所以台灣貓友還是自製比較好, 既安心又省錢. 如果你有一個人類小孩, 你會三餐買便當餵他/她嗎? 當然是自己煮比較好嘛.
And, yes, it's okay if kitty wants to lick the bowl.
Margaret Gates is the founder of the Feline Nutrition Foundation. Contributors to the recipe formulation and this article include Feline Nutrition Advisory Board members Marta Kaspar of Alternative Nutrition and Mimi Stein of the Furry Foodie line of raw pet food products.
針對食譜用到的腿肉部份, 我在2015年7月17日寫媚兒給Feline Nutrition網站的創辦人 Margaret Gates, 跟她說台灣並不容易買到她食譜用的腿肉. 問她可不可以改用以下的搭配:
一公斤帶骨全雞 (去頭, 脖子, 腳, 羽毛)
This sounds fine. Adding in the extra meat without bone is a good idea since you are using the whole chicken carcass. You are adding the heart and liver as in the recipe? We do say in the variations section that you can use whole chicken carcasses, in that case we say to take out some bone, but adding in more meat as you have done works too.
聽起來可以. 加入額外的肉是個好作法, 因為你用的是全雞. 你有加入食譜要求的雞心和肝嗎? 我們有提到可以用全雞來做肉泥, 用全雞的話我們有寫要取出一些骨頭, 但像你這樣加入額外的肉也是可以的.
所以如果你買不到原食譜中那種腿排, 就用我以上的調整版本也行，如果你信任我的話 (哈哈) 我個人是覺得你可以用不同的家禽做變化，例如一公斤的切塊全鵝 + 五百克的去骨鵝胸肉 + 五百克的去骨鵝腿肉之類．我只是一個普通的養貓人, 完全沒有營養學背景, 這只是我個人的想法給你們作參考.
兩公斤的全雞, 去頭, 脖子, 腳, 羽毛和背骨
七個半茶匙 + １個1/4 茶匙 的鈣粉
請注意: 如果你要用鈣粉做去骨食譜, 請一定要買我連結的那瓶鈣粉, 因為我算出來的用量是以那一瓶為依據.
如這張照片你所看到的, 只要準備四個生蛋黃，維他命B, 維他命E, 魚油, 牛磺酸, 塩和鈣粉
記得蓋子要蓋緊, 搖勻後倒進你絞好的肉, 心和肝
再把剩下的半杯水倒進玻璃瓶, 再搖搖搖, 倒入肉心肝中,
玻璃瓶還可以拿來裝肉泥, 冷凍或冷藏, 少洗一個碗
例如食物調理機, 調理棒, 手動絞肉機等等
但是 iherb 現在有中文版, 買東西很方便